Freedom - The 19th Century \u25cf Historiography of the Revolution deals with what questions WHEn historians tend to look at the revolution How revolution

Freedom - The 19th Century u25cf Historiography of the...

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Unformatted text preview: The 19th Century. ● Historiography of the Revolution deals with what questions? WHEn historians tend to look at the revolution, How revolution was the revolution that came out of it? Who benefited , how was it beneficial? ● What are the various interpretations of the revolution since the 18th century? After the revolution, historians viewed the revolution as the writing of the revolution 1) The 19th Century. Bancroft School, named after George Bancroft. American Revolution was the fulfillment of our destiny. The U.S created a constitution as the light of the world, “GLORIOUS EVENT”. Men that fought the constitution are viewed as visionaries/ statements.. The outcome of their great vision. They were great visionary statements. HEROES. THe proves the constitution. 2) Early 20th Century.Beard School (Progressive school), Charles Beard a historian, looked at the Bancroft interpretation, he argued that was internal class conflict. The men that wrote the constitution were wealthy. They didn't create it , they just tried to protect these rich white men's interest. What motivated the founding fathers was their greed. These men did not advance. 3) Middle of 20th century. Cold War Consensus (Post 1945), The founding fathers were geniuses. They weren't geniuses but they werent greedy, they were scientist, make careful experience. What they did in the revolution, scientist were very objective. The cold war was when the soviet were drafting with the communist. We want to say that this world is better, better than the communist. American democracy. 4) 1980’s Republic Synthesis, Gordon Wood the man behind this, made an attempt to synthesize the cold war consensus. The argue, The revolution was a radical intellectual movement. The revolution was anti, proliberty, and distrustful of government, and so when arguing of the constitution, the upper wear feared too much democracy. It did protect the majority rule. 5) 1970’s New Social Historians. They're all focused on the constitution and the founding fathers. Historians now are focused on everyone else that wasn't a rich white man. He asked, Was there a revolution for women?'' Was it appropriate to call it a revolution if some did not benefit from it. We want to look at “Freedom”, that came out of the revolution How can american say that were free, when the country was born with slavery? Or living with slavery? Intellectual history. ● What is Ancient Liberty? Ancient liberty meaning freedom, in the ancient european and christian world, ancient liberty was considered a lack of control in the ancient world was to be understood of slavery, slaved to slavery, not being able to control your desired, a slave to your emotions. This is important , and was thought of a submission to a moral code. Ever since the fall of man. Freedom means summity or abandoning and teaching things about christ. You don't do whatever comes to your mind but summit yourself to something to regulate yourself. Teaching things about Christ is how you become free. Free from sin while I’m serving god. These ancient understandings will grow. By and large the puritans will bring liberty. When the puritans arrived John Winthrop spoke about Moral Liberty- You have the freedom to do what is good, You don't have the liberty to do what is wrong. If you accept this definition restrictions from speech, and freedom of religion. That is how ● What is ANCIENT LIBERTY, PURITAN LIBERTY, SECULAR LIBERTY? -Ancient liberty means serve to god -Puritan liberty is submit to a secular authority. -Secular liberty is you have to obey civil law. There are two things to summit too. If you do both things you are exercising your freedom. This idea will spread among the puritans. The great awakening, ministers said a liberty to do anything that is right and wrong, not everything that we please”, animals follow their instincts, humans one they follow this authority they are free. Puritan liberty gives away to secular liberty. Secular liberty is that you have to obey civil law. John Locke said liberty is having a standing rule, it has to be made of a legislative power. …. Then comes British liberty. The 1700’s version. Secular liberty was the essence of british liberty, a community that had passed , britain was the soul of freedom of the world. For example what do Americans think of their country? That same attitude British had of their country, we Britain have liberty. Why would they look somewhere else? This is going to help justify Colonization around the world. The british had to prove, the french and Spain, their main rival, why they freier than the rest. The french and the spanish are catholics, the pope does not direct the british. The constitution, even the king , takes orders from the pope but in Britain's the king takes orders from The Constitution. The british celebrate the rule of law. British broke down their liberty into 1- political liberty. It meant you were able to participate in public affairs. Having a vote had nothing to do with political freedom but having a representative meant for them that they were free. 2- Civil freedom meaning was the right to obey the law. (Protection of property) meaning the government can't take their property, process, or composition. Having some defense is a huge civil freedom. 3- Personal freedom, individual liberty, Movement. Can go anywhere without restriction, and freedom of conscious. 4- The last liberty is religious liberty, according to the british all british liberty had the right. British liberty is a set of mind. The one thing they thought would destroy liberty was Power. Concentrated power. The american colonists wouldn't argue against the british. ● Define Liberalism and Republicanism As proud as Britain were of their power, they were a contradiction. They believed in two fundamental political ideas. 1- Republicanism celebrated active situations as the essence of liberty. A social person reaches their highest setting of fulfillment in order to pursue the common good. If I am an active republican,you will want to obey the laws because you know by obeying the laws it will affect everyone else. You will want to work with the constitution to affect all you are achieving the highest as any person can. Republican can be expansive and democratic. Republicanism assumed that only property owning citizens had VIRTUE. When they spoke about virtue was an ability to subordinate their personal interest to do good. If you don't take good decisions you don't have virtues. Benjamin Franklin said if you don't have virtue you will lose freedom. The Republic is a civic and social nation. Citizens had a responsibility to pursue the common good. The government has to create something that is the best for the community 2- Liberalism meaning Private and the individual. The central tenet of liberalism is that the government did not provide to pursue the common good but secure living. Protecting freedom did not mean shielding relations. Those things were not good. The public good. Liberalism challenged their own freedom. Contradictory of freedom. WHen the revolution occured. ● How are liberalism and Republicanism the SAME? Both accepted Virtue ● Who do you determine if they have virtue? If they have enough land meaning you function economically and independent. That you won't be bought, you can exercise your virtue. You can't do that if you're a woman, slave, poor white men. If we give you vote, the inferior people will sell their vote to be able to be economically better. Property because introweven. ● How did American re-define British Liberty? Property in Colonial America was widely distributed, more people had more land, a degree in economic independence, that wasn't the case in Europe. Land was widely distributed. In the U.S there was no aristocracy, they were weak. Comparatively a weak church, block any expansion of rights in Northern American Colonies meaning you have weaknesses. “When the american revolution comes, it's going to be fought in the name of Liberty. There were protests during the revolution, being dead, liberty miraculous. Liberty was viewed the opposite of Power. When the revolution started Colonists couched their claims in British traditions, No taxation without representation, trial without jury, these are all british liberties. After 1775 you see a change. Lock defines the struggle for natural rights in Universal Liberties. Liberty was a natural right. Universal Liberty means how american colonists define british liberties. American liberty, universal liberty means Equality”.What's missing from British Liberties? ● What unexpected forces did American Liberty unleash? Equality before the Law. Equality of Condition. We need independence because we need equality. America puts out these principles. Equality will be released out to the world. Liberty now under the America version. Equality came to terms in broader terms. Abigail Adams reads toms and writes to her husband to remember the ladies. Evolution did democratic into free men. The right to vote. Some states did pay tax you could vote. Some states lowered property to be able to vote. The revolution opens about slavery. Everything Jefferson cherished went on the back of those slaves. Ben Rush called on Advocates to spouse the call he called General Liberty. ● What happened to SLAVES during the REVOLUTION? In an erie cremenition, Russia warned slavery would bring National crime to National Punishment. Born during the revolution. Revolution wasn't the end but the beginning that this new country would see the expansion of equality. Rain in freedom. White working Class racial formation. The birth of the white working class. THe revolution changed the white identity with free men. White people compare themselves to white and natives. Define themselves against slaves in the new country. White men considered the Natives because they are the freesest while the Slaves have no freedom. Natives: Colonists would have said that they’re too free. A lack of independence. Natives were disappearing, either killed or driven out. A white worker could say he is a wage slave. The fundamental issue is land property . Slaves were brought as Labors. The difference is white workers compare themselves into african slaves. Black slaves and white workers { indentured servants} both oppressed, virtually the same, Black slaves were called perpetual servants. Indentured servants were called servants. Freedom is not in my mind. My physical day to day life. The revolution comes by bacon rebellion. Spreads the idea of reality to independence especially amongst white. During the revolution, Indentured servitude, there was no institutional support for it because I think it's too dangerous. Slavery was well defended. During the revolution they thought the British were plotting in saving free people. White servitude was conquered on an individual level. Only those unslavish by nature will become free today. The problem is slavishness in Black People. They see the world only through their individual sense. People didn't want indurant servants but wanted to keep slavery. Black people are naturally slaves, then they are inherited a threat to the republican. We see after the revolution, distance themselves in every way. For example, the white would be called higher hand, and they work for a Boss not a master. Any change in the revolution. undermines their freedom, Threaten the republic. White workers got out of the revolution. White workers end up. Up because they think if they are in the middle they’re saved. ● What were the ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION? The US constitution , 1777 the continental congress initiated a plan to govern the states, and this plan is known as the articles of confederation as a mutual defense and trade agreement. We agreed in free trade. The consequence was articles of confederation. With no power to tax has no power. THis means that during and after the war the continental congress couldn't pay. THe workers wouldn't get paid. ANd couldn't pay off the debt. A loose confederation of the 13 colonies. After the revolution you went from shortages from glut to depression. Prices drop and their plenties of good. Food prices drop before the floor. Massachusetts, had formed a new constitution in 1780, was a separate colony and raised property owning. Fewer people owned and the government refused to print any money. That means that it's hard for farmers to pay their debts and the farmers. ⅓ of all households were in debt. You were taken to jail if you were in debt. What caused Shays rebellion? What happened during the rebellion? A Lot of farmers couldn't pay their debt because their food didn't cost a lot. You are going to see a wide spread of land lost in land. Wage laborers were the reason to become free from the pressure. In the fashion of the revolution, Farmers had malicias during the revolution. Freeing debtors. These actions were led by Farmer Know Farmer Daniel Shays and Luke Day. Shay’s had become a continental soldier that wasn't paid, couldn't pay for anything, went to jail and then became a wage labor then started a campaign to resist. Known as Shays rebellion. ● ● How did the elite respond to SHAYS REBELLION? Boston's wealthy elites did NOT support them. Samuel Adams, began to speak on organize against Shay , Adam said that the farmers were instaged treason that they were traders. Samuel Adams drew up the Riot Acts in Massachuset to suspend all liberties. In addition he began to organize his own army. To go west and put down his rebellion. ● What were the results of Shays' Rebellion? Adams' army met Shay's army in Sheffield because it was well equipped and Shay was defeated and escaped to Vermont with Ethan Allen. Others were captured and condemned to hang. 1786-87 Knows as shays rebellion , it was important because it scared the elites, why because this rebellion had threatened the elites and extended other states or colonies. The elites are worried because there is no federal to protect them. The Elite has to have a stronger government to use it against the people . Same men said they had to have a standing army. A continental army to look at the articles of confederation. Samuel Adams wanted a strong army that would put down the people which was known as the constitutional convention marks the end of the american revolution. Equality is going to be crushed by the constitution . ● What type of government did Alexander Hamilton favor in? What kind of government do they want? Alexander Hamilton is an author of the federalist papers. Hamilton wanted a strong central government. Whose principles were not at the leving kind and security. They talked about creating a republic. ● What is federalism and why did the elite favor it? Federalism is dividing political authority between the national government . Federalism is having power that would last by having it everywhere to have republic land. Spread out power.. James Madison said a rage for paper money for an abolition of death was a wicked power. He thinks equal wicked power will prevent that. The delegates were lawyers , slave helders, creditors meaning people owe them money. What about the bill of rights? Only when the constitution would be rativited were built separately , believed in republican freedom. The usual story of constitution , the constitution wasn't compromised and northern merchant rich holders and southern slaveholders were written by. ...
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