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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 5 ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING AND ACTIVITY-BASED MANAGEMENT Homework Assignment: 5-2, 5-3, 5-5, 5-10, 5-11, 5-12, 5-13, 5-16, 5-17, 5-18, 5-19 (BOLD numbers represent minimum requirement ) 5-2 Overcosting may result in competitors entering a market and taking market share for products that a company erroneously believes are low-margin or even unprofitable. Undercosting may result in companies selling products on which they are in fact losing money, when they erroneously believe them to be profitable. 5-3 Costing system refinement means making changes to a simple costing system that reduces the use of broad averages for assigning the cost of resources to cost objects and provides better measurement of the costs of overhead resources used by different cost objects. Three guidelines for refinement are 1. Classify as many of the total costs as direct costs as is economically feasible. 2. Expand the number of indirect cost pools until each of these pools is more homogenous. 3. Use the cause-and-effect criterion, when possible, to identify the cost-allocation base for each indirect-cost pool. 5-5 Four levels of a cost hierarchy are (i) Output unit-level costs: costs of activities performed on each individual unit of a product or service. (ii) Batch-level costs: costs of activities related to a group of units of products or services rather than to each individual unit of product or service. (iii) Product-sustaining costs or service-sustaining costs: costs of activities undertaken to support individual products or services regardless of the number of units or batches in which the units are produced. (iv) Facility-sustaining costs: costs of activities that cannot be traced to individual products or services but support the organization as a whole. 5-10 “Tell-tale” signs that indicate when ABC systems are likely to provide the most benefits are as follows: 1. Significant amounts of indirect costs are allocated using only one or two cost pools. 2. All or most indirect costs are identified as output-unit-level costs (i.e., few indirect costs are described as batch-level, product-sustaining, or facility-sustaining costs). 3. Products make diverse demands on resources because of differences in volume, process steps, batch size, or complexity. 4. Products that a company is well suited to make and sell show small profits, whereas products that a company is less suited to produce and sell show large profits. 5. Operations staff has significant disagreements with the accounting staff about the costs of manufacturing and marketing products and services. 5-11 The main costs and limitations of ABC are the measurements necessary to implement the systems. Even basic ABC systems require many calculations to determine costs of products and services. Activity-cost rates often need to be updated regularly. Very detailed ABC systems are costly to operate and difficult to understand. Sometimes the allocations necessary to calculate activity costs often result in activity-cost pools and quantities of cost-allocation bases being 5- 1 measured with error. When measurement errors are large, activity-cost information can be measured with error....
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