assignment1 - BRIEF OVER VIEW OF FIBER OPTIC CABLE...

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BRIEF OVER VIEW OF FIBER OPTIC CABLE ADVANTAGES OVER COPPER: SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened. RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables. MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain. There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used: single mode, multimode and plastic optical fiber (POF) Fiber optic cable functions as a "light guide," guiding the light introduced at one end of the cable through to the other end. The light source can either be a light-emitting diode (LED)) or a laser. Fiber Optic Fiber optic cabling carries signals, which have been converted from electrical to optical (pulses of light) form. It consists of the core, either an extremely thin cylinder of glass or optical quality plastic, which is surrounded by a second glass or plastic layer called the cladding. The interface between the core and cladding can trap light signals by a process called Total Internal Reflection (TIR), resulting in the optical fiber acting as a light pipe. Protective buffer and jackets materials are used to cover the cladding layer. This type of cabling is less frequently used because it is somewhat more expensive; however, it is rapidly decreasing in both raw cost and installed cost. Fiber optic cables are not susceptible to interference, such as radio waves, fluorescent lighting, or any other source of electrical noise. It is the common cable used for network backbones and can support up to 1000 stations, carrying signals beyond 25 km. Fiber terminations include SC, ST, and a variety of proprietary connectors. Maximum data transfer rate is virtually limitless: tens and hundreds of gigabits per second, limited only by the electronics on each end of the fiber. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is a set of three or four pairs of wires with each wire in each pair twisted around the other to prevent electromagnetic interference. UTP cabling uses RJ-45, RJ-11, RS- 232, and RS-449 connectors. Because it is less expensive and easier to install, UTP is more popular than Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) or Coaxial Cabling. An example of UTP application is telephone networks, which use RJ-11 connectors, and 10BASE-T networks, which use RJ-45 connectors. UTP comes in the form of Cat 2, 3, 4, and 5 grades; however, only Cat 5 is now recommended for any data
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applications. The maximum length is 100 meters, without using any kind of signal regeneration device, and a maximum data transfer rate of 1000 Mbps for Gigabit Ethernet. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), like UTP, also has four pairs of wires with each wire in each pair twisted together. However, the difference is that STP is surrounded with a foil shield and copper braided around the wires that allows more protection from any external electromagnetic interference. Because of the shielding, the cable
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