7AChapter01 - Critical Thinking Chapter 1: Thinking...

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Unformatted text preview: Critical Thinking Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Todays topics Critical Thinking Research Methods Statistical Reasoning Limits of Intuition and Common Sense Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense We cant rely on intuition and common sense. Latan & Darley (1970) Helping behavior (woman falling off ladder) Intuition: she should receive help almost all of the time. Wrong! Hindsight Bias & Overconfidence Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense Two psychological phenomena show why we cant trust common sense and intuition: Hindsight Bias Overconfidence Hindsight Bias Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense / Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias Hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it. AKA 20/20 hindsight or the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Results seem obvious after youve seen the outcome! Hindsight Bias Example: Baratz (1983) Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense / Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias Gave subjects pairs of supposed psychological findings- Group 1: told that researchers found a particular psychological finding- Group 2: told that researchers found the OPPOSITE finding! EXAMPLE:- People who go to church regularly tend to have more children than people who go to church infrequently OR- People who go to church infrequently tend to have more children than people who go to church regularly- FINDINGS: Most students rated whichever finding they were given as something they would have predicted. RESULTS SEEM OBVIOUS OR PREDICTABLE AFTER YOU KNOW THE RESULT! Overconfidence Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense / Overconfidence Intellectual arrogance - We think we know more than we really do! Example: We think well complete tasks in less time than it actually takes. Example: Even after their predictions have been proven wrong, experts often feel they were basically right in their predictions. The Scientific Attitude Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Scientific Attitude Curious have a passion to investigate and understand Skeptical challenge claims, ask for evidence Humility accept when your own ideas are wrong Critical thinking thinking that doesnt blindly accept arguments and conclusions The Scientific Method Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Science / The Need for Psychological Science / The Scientific Method...
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7AChapter01 - Critical Thinking Chapter 1: Thinking...

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