Midterm 2:Human Sexuality Notes.pdf - Saturday March 9 2019...

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Unformatted text preview: Saturday, March 9, 2019 Human Sexuality Midterm 2 Chapter 6: Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth - How to get Pregnant: - Placenta serves as an exchange site between women's blood and fetus blood, they never circulate inside each other, also secretes hormones like HCG, produces estrogen and progesterone - Umbilical cord is formed during 5th week of development, it attaches to placenta - Two things surround fetus chorion and amnion, Fetus floats in amniotic fluid - 28 day menustral cycle: woman ovulates on day 14 - Ovulation: basal body temperature rises after ovulation, time intercourse 1-2 days after ovulation - How to get pregnant: missionary position, no artificial chemicals/lubricants, after intercourse keep legs up or position a pillow under hips and stay for half an hour - Presumptive signs ( first symptoms): missed period, fatigue, breast tenderness - If have missed period and 2+ of these symptoms: 67% chance of being pregnant - Positive signs: active fetal movement, fetal heart beat, detection of fetal skeleton by ultrasound - If basal temperature rises and stays up for 2 weeks: you’re probably pregnant - Conception: - Many sperm do not make it: killed by acidity of vagina, fall out due to gravity, have malformations, swim up wrong fallopian tube - HCG test: Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin test: hormone produced by placenta that is detectable in urine - Hyalurondase: enzyme secreted by sperm that allows 1 sperm to penetrate an egg ( its found in acrosome of sperm) - Hyalurondase allows sperm to penetrate zone pelucida - How it works: egg is released into body cavity and propelled by fijmbraie structures( cilia) into fallopian tubes( unlike sperm egg cannot move) 1 Saturday, March 9, 2019 - 36 hrs after intercourse cell division occurs, 5-7 days after intercourse implementation occurs where cells implant into uterus - Flagellation: how sperm is propelled - Nagele’s rule: developed to find due date or expected date of confinement( EDC) Add 1 year, 3 months, 1 week, ultrasound is a better estimate - Miscarriage: 15-20% of women experience miscarriages - Symptoms: lower back/abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, clot that passes through vagina - Woman must be checked after to make sure no tissue remains in her uterus - How to prevent: early prenatal care, detect/treat illnesses, avoid environmental hazards - Greater risk if you are 35-40, 40+ higher risk - Mixed emotional reactions about pregnancy, income associated with emotional state - Zygote: conception to 2 weeks - Embryo: 2-8 weeks - Fetus: 8 weeks- delivery - Pregnancy: - Pregnancy consists of 3 trimesters, 36 weeks total - First Trimester: most remarkable trimester, lasts 12 weeks - Associated with morning sickness( theory that women avoids/expels chemicals) - Increased temperature due to progesterone from corpus lute - Breasts swell, need to urinate more frequently due pressure from uterus on bladder - Second Trimester: characterized by a period of calm and excitement - Edema: fluid retention and swelling - Colostrum: occurs at 19 weeks and is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands - Symptoms of second trimester are expanding belly, increased frequency of urination, fetal movements, nosebleeds, constipation 2 Saturday, March 9, 2019 - Third Trimester : - Pre eclampsia: sharp rise in blood pressure, swelling of hands/feet, protein in urine - Uterus is large/hard, awkwardness, pressure on organs, Braxton Hicks contractions: painless, uterine contractions designed to prepare uterus for labor - Only go to hospital when contractions are 4-5 mins apart - Breach presentation: when baby doesn’t assume a head down position - 18th week: can feel movement for 2 weeks now - Drugs/Alcohol on a Fetus - Teratogens: substances that cause defects in a fetus - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: all outcomes associated with amount of consumption, 5 drinks associated with cryptorchidism: undescended testes in male infants - Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: serious growth deficiency and malformations in the fetus due to the mother drinking throughout the pregnancy, high risks are 5+ drinks on 1 occasion, and 7 drinks a week - Marijuana: associated with low sperm count, drugs can cause birth defects/drugs damage sperms - Lower levels of testosterone increases paternal behaviour - Illness during pregnancy: - Rubella: 50% chance infant will be born deaf/cognitive defects - Herpes: spontaneous aborting if woman has genital herpes - AIDS: women can get tested - Birth Defects: - Older people more at risk, 35-40 - Obesity in women associated with congenital abnormalities - Amniocentesis: inserting a tube into the abdomen of the women to test the amniotic fluid and analyze 3 Saturday, March 9, 2019 - Amniocentesis can only be done in second trimester - However amniocentesis is associated with risks: ie. miscarriage, harm to baby, preterm delivery - 3 Factors of Birth Defect: - Woman already has a child with a birth defect - She believes she is a carrier of a genetic defect - She is over 35 - Chorionic Villus Sampling( CVS): another way to test has 2 ways: transabdominally, transcervically, risks: miscarriage, fetal loss - Birth - Mucous plug discharge: bloody discharge located at cervical opening to keep out germs - Ruptured membranes- water breaking happens to only 10% of women - Increased Braxton Hicks contractions: 4-5 mins apart go to the hospital - Labour is divided into 3 stages; - 1: 12-15 hrs, 8 for second pregnancy— regular contractions 2 parts: effacement: thinning of the cervix and dilation: dilation of the cervix - 2: delivery of baby, crowning: baby head becomes visible - Episiotomy: incision made in perineum that is controversial because it shortens delivery time but can be painful to heal and may not be necessary - 3: post birth where placenta is expelled - C section: delivering a baby surgically by making an incision in the abdomen, more made in Canada due to women being older, fetal monitors in case baby is in distress, more women are requesting them, it is conducted when complications arise due to umbilical cord prolapsing, cervix is not dilating, excessive bleeding, mom nearing total exhaustion - Lamaze Method: method that increases a woman’s confidence in giving birth, there are classes that focus on relaxation - Doula- provides emotional support during labor, most women have shorter labor 4 Saturday, March 9, 2019 - Midwives; not to be used with high risk pregnancies 6% of women, covered under health plans, 71% of women rate birth as more powerful 5 ...
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