Unformatted text preview: mws_manual_08 05.08.2008 10:43 Uhr Seite 1 C ST MICROWAVE STUDIO ® WORKFLOW & S O LV E R O V E R V I E W CST STUDIO SUITE™ 2009 mws_manual_08 05.08.2008 10:43 Uhr Seite 2 Copyright © CST 19982008 CST – Computer Simulation Technology AG All rights reserved. Information in this document is subject to change without notice. The software described in this document is furnished under a license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used only in accordance with the terms of those agreements. No part of this documentation may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or any means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any purpose other than the purchaser’s personal use without the written permission of CST. Trademarks CST STUDIO SUITE, CST DESIGN ENVIRONMENT, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO, CST EM STUDIO, CST PARTICLE STUDIO, CST PCB STUDIO, CST CABLE STUDIO, CST DESIGN STUDIO, CST are trademarks or registered trademarks of CST AG. Other brands and their products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders and should be noted as such. CST – Computer Simulation Technology AG www.cst.com CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Contents September 3 2008 rd CHAPTER 1 — INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 3 Welcome......................................................................................................................................3 How to Get Started Quickly .................................................................................................... 3 What is CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®? ................................................................................. 3 Who Uses CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®? ............................................................................ 5 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Key Features...............................................................................5 General................................................................................................................................... 5 Structure Modeling ................................................................................................................. 5 Transient Simulator................................................................................................................. 6 Frequency Domain Simulator ................................................................................................. 7 Integral Equation Simulator .................................................................................................... 8 Eigenmode Simulator ............................................................................................................. 9 Schematic View ...................................................................................................................... 9 Visualization and Secondary Result Calculation..................................................................... 9 Result Export ........................................................................................................................ 10 Automation ........................................................................................................................... 10 About This Manual.....................................................................................................................10 Document Conventions ........................................................................................................ 10 Your Feedback ..................................................................................................................... 11
CHAPTER 2 – SIMULATION WORKFLOW ..............................................................................................12 The Structure........................................................................................................................ 12 Start CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® ..................................................................................... 13 Open the Quick Start Guide.................................................................................................. 14 Define the Units .................................................................................................................... 15 Define the Background Material ........................................................................................... 15 Model the Structure .............................................................................................................. 15 Define the Frequency Range................................................................................................ 22 Define Ports.......................................................................................................................... 23 Define Boundary and Symmetry Conditions ......................................................................... 25 Visualize the Mesh ............................................................................................................... 27 Start the Simulation .............................................................................................................. 28 Analyze the Port Modes........................................................................................................ 31 Analyze the SParameters.................................................................................................... 32 Adaptive Mesh Refinement................................................................................................... 34 Analyze the Electromagnetic Field at Various Frequencies.................................................. 37 Parameterization of the Model.............................................................................................. 42 Parameter Sweeps and Processing of Parametric Result Data............................................ 48 Automatic Optimization of the Structure ............................................................................... 55 Comparison of Time and Frequency Domain Solver Results ............................................... 59 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 62
CHAPTER 3 — SOLVER OVERVIEW.......................................................................................................63 Which Solver to Use ..................................................................................................................63 General Purpose Frequency Domain Computations .................................................................66 Resonant Frequency Domain Computations .............................................................................70 Resonant: Fast SParameter ................................................................................................ 70 Resonant: SParameter, fields.............................................................................................. 72 Integral Equation Computations ................................................................................................74 Eigenmode (Resonator) Computations .....................................................................................78 Choose the Right Port ...............................................................................................................82 Antenna Computations ..............................................................................................................83 Simplifying Antenna Farfield Calculations............................................................................. 86 2 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Digital Calculations ....................................................................................................................87 Add Circuit Elements to External Ports......................................................................................89
CHAPTER 4 — FINDING FURTHER INFORMATION ...............................................................................91 The Quick Start Guide ...............................................................................................................91 Online Documentation ...............................................................................................................92 Tutorials.....................................................................................................................................92 Examples...................................................................................................................................92 Technical Support......................................................................................................................93 History of Changes ....................................................................................................................93 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 3 Chapter 1 — Introduction
Welcome
Welcome to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, the powerful and easytouse electromagnetic field simulation software. This program combines a userfriendly interface with unsurpassed simulation performance. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is part of the CST STUDIO SUITE™. Please refer to the CST STUDIO SUITE™ Getting Started manual first. The following explanations assume that you already installed the software and familiarized yourself with the basic concepts of the user interface. How to Get Started Quickly
We recommend that you proceed as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the CST STUDIO SUITE™ Getting Started manual. Work through this document carefully. It provides all the basic information necessary to understand the advanced documentation. Work through the online help system’s tutorials by choosing the example which best suits your needs. Look at the examples folder in the installation directory. The different application types will give you a good impression of what has already been done with the software. Please note that these examples are designed to give you a basic insight into a particular application domain. Realworld applications are typically much more complex and harder to understand if you are not familiar with the basic concepts. Start with your own first example. Choose a reasonably simple example, which will allow you to become familiar with the software quickly. After you have worked through your first example, contact technical support for hints on possible improvements to achieve even more efficient usage of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. 5. 6. What is CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®?
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is a fully featured software package for electromagnetic analysis and design in the high frequency range. It simplifies the process of inputting the structure by providing a powerful solid modeling front end which is based on the ACIS modeling kernel. Strong graphic feedback simplifies the definition of your device even further. After the component has been modeled, a fully automatic meshing procedure is applied before a simulation engine is started. A key feature of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is the Method on Demand™ approach which allows using the simulator or mesh type that is best suited to a particular problem. All simulators support hexahedral grids in combination with the Perfect Boundary Approximation (PBA)® feature. Besides the PBA feature, some solvers also support the Thin Sheet Technique™ (TST) extension. Applying these highly advanced techniques 4 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview normally increases the accuracy of the simulation substantially in comparison to conventional simulators. Since no method works equally well in all application domains, the software contains four different simulation techniques (transient solver, frequency domain solver, integral equation solver, eigenmode solver) to best fit their particular applications. The frequency domain solver also contains specialized methods for analyzing highly resonant structures such as filters. Furthermore, the frequency domain solver supports both hexahedral and tetrahedral mesh types. The most flexible tool is the transient solver, which can obtain the entire broadband frequency behavior of the simulated device from only one calculation run (in contrast to the frequency step approach of many other simulators). This solver is remarkably efficient for most kinds of high frequency applications such as connectors, transmission lines, filters, antennae and more. The transient solver is less efficient for electrically small structures that are much smaller than the shortest wavelength. In these cases it is advantageous to solve the problem by using the frequency domain solver. The frequency domain solver may also be the method of choice for narrow band problems such as filters or when the usage of tetrahedral grids is advantageous. Besides the general purpose solver (supporting hexahedral and tetrahedral grids), the frequency domain solver also contains fast alternatives for the calculation of Sparameters for strongly resonating structures. Please note that the latter solvers are currently available for hexahedral grids only. For electrically very large structures, volumetric discretization methods generally suffer from dispersion effects which require very fine meshes. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® therefore contains an integral equation based solver which is particularly suited to solving this kind of problems. The integral equation solver uses a triangular surface mesh which becomes very efficient for electrically large structures. The MLFMM solver technology ensures an excellent scaling of solver time and memory requirements with increasing frequencies. For lower frequencies where the MLFMM is not efficient an iterative MoM solver is available. Efficient filter design often requires the direct calculation of the operating modes in the filter rather than an Sparameter simulation. For these applications, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® also features an eigenmode solver which efficiently calculates a finite number of modes in closed electromagnetic devices. If you are unsure which solver best suits your needs, contact your local sales office for further assistance. Each solver's simulation results can be visualized with a variety of different options. Again, a strongly interactive interface will help you achieve the desired insight into your device quickly. The last – but not least – outstanding feature is the full parameterization of the structure modeler, which enables the use of variables in the definition of your component. In combination with the builtin optimizer and parameter sweep tools, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is capable of both the analysis and design of electromagnetic devices. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 5 Who Uses CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®?
Anyone who has to deal with electromagnetic problems in the high frequency range should use CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The program is especially suited to the fast, efficient analysis and design of components like antennae (including arrays), filters, transmission lines, couplers, connectors (single and multiple pin), printed circuit boards, resonators and many more. Since the underlying method is a general 3D approach, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can solve virtually any high frequency field problem. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Key Features
The following list gives you an overview of the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® main features. Note that not all of these features may be available to you because of license restrictions. Contact a sales office for more information. General
Native graphical user interface based on Windows XP and Vista Fast and memory efficient Finite Integration Technique Extremely good performance due to Perfect Boundary Approximation® feature for solvers using hexahedral grids. The transient and eigenmode solvers also support the Thin Sheet Technique™ (TST). Hexahedral grids are supported by all solvers. The structure can be viewed either as a 3D model or as a schematic. The latter allows for easy coupling of EM simulation with circuit simulation. Structure Modeling
Advanced ACIS based, parametric solid modeling front end with excellent structure visualization Featurebased hybrid modeler allows quick structural changes Import of 3D CAD data by SAT (e.g. AutoCAD®), Autodesk Inventor®, IGES, VDAFS, STEP, ProE®, CATIA 4®, CATIA 5®, CoventorWare®, Mecadtron®, Nastran or STL files Import of 2D CAD data by DXF, GDSII and Gerber RS274X, RS274D files Import of EDA data from design flows including Cadence Allegro® / APD®, Mentor Graphics Expedition®, Mentor Graphics PADS® and ODB++® (e.g. Mentor Graphics Boardstation®, Zuken CR5000®, CADSTAR®, Visula®) Import of PCB designs originating from Simlab PCBMod® / CST PCBStudio™ Import of 2D and 3D sub models Import of Agilent ADS® layouts Import of Sonnet® EM models (8.5x) Import of a visible human model dataset or other voxel datasets Export of CAD data by SAT, IGES, STEP, NASTRAN, STL, DXF, Gerber, DRC or POV files Parameterization for imported CAD files Material database Structure templates for simplified problem description
1 1 Portions of this software are owned by Spatial Corp. © 1986 – 2008. All Rights Reserved. 6 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Transient Simulator
Efficient calculation for lossfree and lossy structures Broadband calculation of Sparameters from one single calculation run by applying DFTs to time signals Calculation of field distributions as a function of time or at multiple selected frequencies from one simulation run Adaptive mesh refinement in 3D using SParameter or 0D results as stop criteria Shared memory parallelization of the transient solver run MPI Cluster parallelization via domain decomposition Support of Acceleware's Accelerator™ A30 and ClusterInABox™ Dual D30 or Quad Q30 cards Isotropic and anisotropic material properties Frequency dependent material properties Gyrotropic materials (magnetized ferrites) Surface impedance model for good conductors Port mode calculation by a 2D eigenmode solver in the frequency domain Automatic waveguide port mesh adaptation Multipin ports for TEM mode ports with multiple conductors Multiport and multimode excitation (subsequently or simultaneously) Plane wave excitation (linear, circular or elliptical polarization) Excitation by a current distribution imported from SimLab® Excitation of external fields imported from Sigrity® Sparameter symmetry option to decrease solve time for many structures Autoregressive filtering for efficient treatment of strongly resonating structures Renormalization of Sparameters for specified port impedances Phase deembedding of Sparameters Inhomogeneous port accuracy enhancement for highly accurate Sparameter results Singleended Sparameter calculation High performance radiating/absorbing boundary conditions Conducting wall boundary conditions Periodic boundary conditions without phase shift Calculation of various electromagnetic quantities such as electric fields, magnetic fields, surface currents, power flows, current densities, power loss densities, electric energy densities, magnetic energy densities, voltages in time and frequency domain Antenna farfield calculation (including gain, beam direction, side lobe suppression, etc.) with and without farfield approximation at multiple selected frequencies Broadband farfield monitors and farfield probes to determine broadband farfield information over a wide angular range or at certain angles respectively Antenna array farfield calculation RCS calculation Calculation of SAR distributions Discrete edge or face elements (lumped resistors) as ports Ideal voltage and current sources for EMC problems Lumped R, L, C, (nonlinear) diode elements at any location in the structure Transient EM/circuit cosimulation with CST DESIGN STUDIO™ network elements Rectangular shape excitation function for TDR analysis CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 7 User defined excitation signals and signal database Simultaneous port excitation with different excitation signals for each port Automatic parameter studies using builtin parameter sweep tool Automatic structure optimization for arbitrary goals using builtin optimizer Network distributed computing for optimizations, parameter sweeps and multiple port/mode excitations Coupled simulations with Thermal Solver from CST EM STUDIO™ Frequency Domain Simulator
Efficient calculation for lossfree and lossy structures including lossy waveguide ports General purpose solver supports both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes Adaptive mesh refinement in 3D using SParameter as stop criteria Automatic fast broadband adaptive frequency sweep for Sparameters User defined frequency sweeps Continuation of the solver run with additional frequency samples Direct and iterative matrix solvers with convergence acceleration techniques Isotropic and anisotropic material properties Arbitrary frequency dependent material properties Surface impedance model for good conductors, Ohmic sheets and corrugated walls (tetrahedral mesh only) Inhomogeneously biased Ferrites with a static biasing field (tetrahedral mesh only) Port mode calculation by a 2D eigenmode solver in the frequency domain Automatic waveguide port mesh adaptation (tetrahedral mesh only) Multipin ports for TEM mode ports with multiple conductors Plane wave excitation with linear, circular or elliptical polarization (tetrahedral mesh only) Discrete edge and face elements (lumped resistors) as ports (face elements: tetrahedral mesh only) Ideal current source for EMC problems (tetrahedral mesh only, restricted) Lumped R, L, C elements at any location in the structure Renormalization of Sparameters for specified port impedances Phase deembedding of Sparameters Singleended Sparameter calculation High performance radiating/absorbing boundary conditions Conducting wall boundary conditions (tetrahedral mesh only) Periodic boundary conditions including phase shift or scan angle Unit cell feature simplifies the simulation of periodic antenna arrays or frequency selective surfaces (tetrahedral mesh only) Convenient generation of the unit cell calculation domain from arbitrary structures (tetrahedral mesh only) Floquet mode ports (periodic waveguide ports) Fast farfield and RCS calculation based on the Floquet port aperture fields (tetrahedral mesh only) Calculation of various electromagnetic quantities such as electric fields, magnetic fields, surface currents, power flows, current densities, power loss densities, electric energy densities, magnetic energy densities 8 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Antenna farfield calculation (including gain, beam direction, side lobe suppression, etc.) with and without farfield approximation Antenna array farfield calculation RCS calculation (tetrahedral mesh only) Calculation of SAR distributions (hexahedral mesh only) Automatic parameter studies using builtin parameter sweep tool Automatic structure optimization for arbitrary goals using builtin optimizer Network distributed computing for optimizations and parameter sweeps Network distributed computing for frequency samples and remote calculation Besides the general purpose solver, the frequency domain solver also contains two solvers specifically for highly resonant structures (hexahedral meshes only). The first of these solvers calculates Sparameters only, whereas the second also calculates fields. Integral Equation Simulator
Fast monostatic RCS sweep Calculation of various electromagnetic quantities such as electric fields, magnetic fields, surface currents Antenna farfield calculation (including gain, beam direction, side lobe suppression, etc.) RCS calculation Waveguide port excitation Plane wave excitation Farfield excitation Farfield excitation with multipole coefficient calculation Current distribution Discrete face port excitation Multithread Parallelization Efficient calculation of lossfree and lossy structures including lossy waveguide ports Surface mesh discretization Isotropic material properties Arbitrary frequency dependent material properties Automatic fast broadband adaptive frequency sweep User defined frequency sweeps Direct and iterative matrix solvers with convergence acceleration techniques Higher order representation of the fields including mixed order Single and double precision floatingpoint representation Port mode calculation by a 2D eigenmode solver in the frequency domain Renormalization of Sparameters for specified port impedances Phase deembedding of Sparameters Automatic parameter studies using builtin parameter sweep tool Automatic structure optimization for arbitrary goals using builtin optimizer Network distributed computing for optimizations and parameter sweeps Network distributed computing for frequency sweeps CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 9 Eigenmode Simulator
Calculation of modal field distributions in closed loss free or lossy structures Isotropic and anisotropic materials Parallelization Adaptive mesh refinement in 3D Periodic boundary conditions including phase shift Calculation of losses and internal / external Qfactors for each mode (directly or using perturbation method) Discrete L,C can be used for calculation Frequency target can be set (calculation in the middle of the spectra) Calculation of all eigenmodes in a given frequency interval Automatic parameter studies using builtin parameter sweep tool Automatic structure optimization for arbitrary goals using builtin optimizer Network distributed computing for optimizations and parameter sweeps Schematic View
Allows for the connection of arbitrary networks to EM ports. These networks can contain any combination of licensed CST DESIGN STUDIO™ blocks, including R/L/C circuit elements, active devices, ideal phase shifters, perfect absorbers, variable reflections, directional couplers, 3dB splitters, SPICE netlists, IBIS buffers and ports. Allows connecting other projects, including Touchstone files, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, CST CABLE STUDIO™ and CST PCB STUDIO™ projects. Standard as well as transient EM/circuit cosimulation can be performed using this schematic view. All circuit simulation capabilities licensed for CST DESIGN STUDIO™ can also be used within this schematic view. The schematic view and the 3D view are synchronized automatically. Visualization and Secondary Result Calculation
Multiple 1D result view support Displays Sparameters in xyplots (linear or logarithmic scale) Displays Sparameters in Smith charts and polar charts Online visualization of intermediate results during simulation Import and visualization of external xydata Copy / paste of xydatasets Fast access to parametric data via interactive tuning sliders Displays port modes (with propagation constant, impedance, etc.) Various field visualization options in 2D and 3D for electric fields, magnetic fields, power flows, surface currents, etc. Animation of field distributions Calculation and display of farfields (fields, gain, directivity, RCS) in xyplots, polar plots, scattering maps and radiation plots (3D) Calculation of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) including averaging over specified mass Calculation of surface losses by perturbation method and Q factor 10 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Display and integration of 2D and 3D fields along arbitrary curves Integration of 3D fields across arbitrary faces Automatic extraction of SPICE network models for arbitrary topologies ensuring the passivity of the extracted circuits Combination of results from different port excitations Hierarchical result templates for automated extraction and visualization of arbitrary results from various simulation runs. These data can also be used for the definition of optimization goals. Result Export
Export of Sparameter data as TOUCHSTONE files Export of result data such as fields, curves, etc. as ASCII files Export screen shots of result field plots Export of farfield data as excitation for ISolver Automation
Powerful VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) compatible macro language including editor and macro debugger OLE automation for seamless integration into the Windows environment (Microsoft Office®, MATLAB®, AutoCAD®, MathCAD®, Windows Scripting Host, etc.) About This Manual
This manual is primarily designed to enable a quick start of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. It is not intended to be a complete reference guide to all the available features but will give you an overview of key concepts. Understanding these concepts will allow you to learn how to use the software efficiently with the help of the online documentation. The main part of the manual is the Simulation Workflow (Chapter 2) which will guide you through the most important features of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. We strongly encourage you to study this chapter carefully. Document Conventions
Commands accessed through the main window menu are printed as follows: menu bar item menu item. This means that you first should click the “menu bar item” (e.g. “File”) and then select the corresponding “menu item” from the opening menu (e.g. “Open”). Buttons which should be clicked within dialog boxes are always written in italics, e.g. OK. Key combinations are always joined with a plus (+) sign. Ctrl+S means that you should hold down the “Ctrl” key while pressing the “S” key. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 11 Your Feedback
We are constantly striving to improve the quality of our software documentation. If you have any comments on the documentation, please send them to your local support center. If you don’t know how to contact the support center near you, send an email to [email protected] 12 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Chapter 2 – Simulation Workflow
The following example shows a fairly simple Sparameter calculation. Studying this example carefully will help you become familiar with many standard operations that are important when performing a simulation with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. Go through the following explanations carefully, even if you are not planning to use the software for Sparameter computations. Only a small portion of the example is specific to this particular application type while most of the considerations are general to all solvers and application domains. In subsequent sections you will find some remarks concerning the differences of the typical procedures for other kinds of simulations. The following explanations describe the “long” way to open a particular dialog box or to launch a particular command. Whenever available, the corresponding toolbar item will be displayed next to the command description. Because of the limited space in this manual, the shortest way to activate a particular command (i.e. by either pressing a shortcut key or by activating the command from the context menu) is omitted. You should regularly open the context menu to check available commands for the currently active mode. The Structure
In the example, you will model a simple coaxial bend with a tuning stub. You will then calculate the broadband Sparameter matrix for this structure before looking at the electromagnetic field inside this structure at various frequencies. The following picture shows the current structure of interest (it has been sliced open to aid visualization). The picture is produced using the POV export option. Before you start modeling the structure, let’s spend a few moments discussing how to describe this structure efficiently. Due to the outer conductor of the coaxial cable, the structure is sealed as if it were embedded in a perfect electric conducting block (apart, of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 13 course, from the ports). For simplification, you can thus model the problem without the outer conductor and instead embed it in a perfect conducting block. In order to simplify this procedure, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® allows you to define the properties of the background material. Anything you do not fill with a particular material will automatically be filled with the background material. For this structure, it is sufficient to model the dielectric parts and define the background material as a perfect electric conductor. Your method of describing the structure should be as follows: 1. 2. Model the dielectric (air) cylinders. Model the inner conductor inside the dielectric part. Start CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®
After starting CST DESIGN ENVIRONMENT™ and choosing to create a new CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® project, you will be asked to select a template for a structure which is closest to your device of interest. For this example, select the coaxial connector template and click OK. The software’s default settings will adjust in order to simplify the simulation set up for the coaxial connector. 14 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Open the Quick Start Guide
An interesting feature of the online help system is the Quick Start Guide, an electronic assistant that will guide you through your simulation. You can open this assistant by selecting Help Quick Start Guide if it does not show up automatically. The following dialog box should now be positioned in the upper right corner of the main view: If your dialog box looks different, click the Back button to get the dialog above. In this dialog box you should select the Problem Type “Transient Analysis” and click the Next button. The following window should appear: The red arrow always indicates the next step necessary for your problem definition. You may not have to process the steps in this order, but we recommend you follow this guide at the beginning in order to ensure all necessary steps have been completed. Look at the dialog box as you follow the various steps in this example. You may close the assistant at any time. Even if you reopen the window later, it will always indicate the next required step. If you are unsure of how to access a certain operation, click on the corresponding line. The Quick Start Guide will then either run an animation showing the location of the related menu entry or open the corresponding help page. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 15 Define the Units
The coaxial connector template has already made some settings for you. The defaults for this structure type are geometrical lengths in mm and frequencies in GHz. You can change these settings by entering the desired settings in the units dialog box (Solve Units ( )), but for this example you should just leave the settings as specified by the template. Define the Background Material
As discussed above, the structure will be described within a perfectly conducting world. The coaxial connector template has set this typical default value for you. In order to change these settings, you may make changes in the corresponding dialog box (Solve Background Material ( )). For this example, you don’t need to change anything. Model the Structure
The first step is to create a cylinder along the zaxis of the coordinate system: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select the cylinder creation tool from the main menu: Objects Basic Shapes Cylinder ( ). Press the Shift+Tab key and enter the center point (0,0) in the xyplane before pressing the Return key to store this setting. Press the Tab key again, enter the radius 2 and press the Return key. Press the Tab key, enter the height 12 and press the Return key. Press Esc to create a solid cylinder (skip the definition of the inner radius). In the shape dialog box, enter “long cylinder” in the Name field. You may simply select the predefined material Vacuum (which is very close to air) from the list in the Material field. Here we are going to create a new material “air” to show how the layer creation procedure works, so select the New Material entry in the list of materials. In the material creation dialog box, enter the Material name “air," select Normal dielectric properties (Type) and check the material properties Epsilon = 1.0 and Mue = 1.0. Then select a color and close the dialog box by clicking OK. In the cylinder creation dialog box, your settings should now look as follows: 8. 9. 16 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Finally, click OK to create the cylinder. The result of these operations should look like the picture below. You can press the Space bar to zoom in to a full screen view. The next step is to create a second cylinder perpendicular to the first. The center of the new cylinder’s base should be aligned with the center of the first one. Follow these steps to define the second cylinder: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select the wire frame draw mode: View View Options ( ) or use the shortcut Ctrl+W. Activate the “circle center” pick tool: Objects Pick Pick Circle Center ( ). Doubleclick on one of the cylinder’s circular edges so that a point is added in the center of the circle. Perform steps 2 and 3 for the cylinder’s other circular edge. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 17 Now the construction should look like the following: Next replace the two selected points by a point in between the two by selecting Objects Pick Mean Last Two Points from the menu. You can now move the origin of the local coordinate system (WCS) to this point by choosing WCS Align WCS with Selected Point ( ) from the main menu. The screen should look like this: 18 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Now align the w axis of the WCS with the proposed axis of the second cylinder. 1. 2. 3. Select WCS Rotate Local Coordinates ( ) from the main menu. Select the U axis as rotation Axis and enter a rotation Angle of –90 degrees. Click the OK button. Alternatively you could press Shift+U to rotate the WCS by 90 degrees around its u axis. Thus pressing Shift+U three times has the same effect as the rotation by using the dialog box described above. Now the structure should look like this: The next step is to create the second cylinder perpendicular to the first one: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select the cylinder creation tool from the main menu: Objects Basic Shapes Cylinder ( ). Press the Shift+Tab key and enter the center point (0,0) in the uvplane. Press the Tab key again and enter the radius 2. Press the Tab key and enter the height 6. Press Esc to create a solid cylinder. In the shape dialog box, enter “short cylinder” in the Name field. Select the material “air” from the material list and click OK. Now the program will automatically detect the intersection between these two cylinders. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 19 In the “Shape intersection” dialog box, choose the option Add both shapes and click OK. Finally the structure should look like this: The creation of the dielectric air parts is complete. The following operations will now create the inner conductor inside the air. 20 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Since the coordinate system is already aligned with the center of the second cylinder, you can go ahead and start to create the first part of the conductor: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select the cylinder creation tool from the main menu: Objects Basic Shapes Cylinder ( ). Press the Shift+Tab key and enter the center point (0,0) in the uvplane. Press the Tab key again and enter the radius 0.86. Press the Tab key and enter the height 6. Press Esc to create a solid cylinder. In the shape dialog box, enter “short conductor” in the Name field. Select the predefined Material PEC (perfect electric conductor) from the list of available materials and click OK to create the cylinder. At this point we should briefly discuss the intersections between shapes. In general, each point in space should be identified with one particular material. However, perfect electric conductors can be seen as a special kind of material. It is allowable for a perfect conductor to be present at the same point as a dielectric material. In such cases, the perfect conductor is always the dominant material. The situation is also clear for two overlapping perfectly conducting materials, since in this case the overlapping regions will also be perfect conductors. On the other hand, two different dielectric shapes must not overlap each other. Therefore the intersection dialog box will not be shown automatically in case of a perfect conductor overlapping with a dielectric material or with another perfect conductor. Background information: Some structures contain extremely complex conducting parts embedded within dielectric materials. In such cases, the overall complexity of the model can be significantly reduced by NOT intersecting these two materials. This is the reason CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® allows this exception. However, you should always make use of this feature whenever possible, even in such simple structures as this example. The following picture shows the structure as it should currently look: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 21 Now you should add the second conductor. First align the local coordinate system with the upper z circle of the first dielectric cylinder: 1. 2. Select Objects Pick Pick Face ( ) from the main menu. Doubleclick on the first cylinder’s upper zplane. The selected face should now be highlighted: 3. Now choose WCS Align WCS with Selected Face ( ) from the main menu. The waxis of the local coordinate system is aligned with the first cylinder’s axis, so you can now create the second part of the conductor: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Select the cylinder creation tool from the main menu: Objects Basic Shapes Cylinder ( ). Press the Shift+Tab key and enter the center point (0,0) in the uvplane. Press the Tab key again and enter the radius 0.86. Press the Tab key and enter the height –11. Press Esc to create a solid cylinder. In the cylinder creation dialog box enter “long conductor” in the Name field. Select the Material “PEC” from the list and click OK. The newly created cylinder intersects with the dielectric part as well as with the previously created PEC cylinder. Even if there are two intersections (dielectric / PEC and PEC / PEC), the Shape intersection dialog box will not be shown here since both types of overlaps are well defined. In both cases the common volume will be of type PEC. Congratulations! You have just created your first structure within CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The view should now look like this: 22 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The following gallery shows some views of the structure available using different visualization options: Shaded view (deactivated working plane, Alt+W) Shaded view (long conductor selected) Shaded view (cutplane activated View Cutting Plane, Appearance of part above cutplane = transparent) Define the Frequency Range
The next important setting for the simulation is the frequency range of interest. You can specify the frequency by choosing Solve Frequency ( ) from the main menu: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 23 In this example you should specify a frequency range between 0 and 18 GHz. Since you have already set the frequency unit to GHz, you need to define only the absolute numbers 0 and 18 (the status bar always displays the current unit settings). Define Ports
The following calculation of Sparameters requires the definition of ports through which energy enters and leaves the structure. You can do this by simply selecting the corresponding faces before entering the ports dialog box. For the definition of the first port, perform the following steps: 1. 2. Select Objects Pick Pick Face ( ) from the main menu. Doubleclick on the upper zplane of the dielectric part. The selected face will be highlighted: 3. Open the ports dialog box by selecting Solve Waveguide Ports ( menu: ) from the main 24 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Everything is already set up correctly for the coaxial cable, so you can simply click OK in this dialog box. Once the first port has been defined, the structure should look like this: You can now define the second port in exactly the same way. The picture below shows the structure after the definition of both ports: The correct definition of ports is very important for obtaining accurate Sparameters. Please refer to the Choose the Right Port section later in this manual to obtain more information about the correct placement of ports for various types of structures. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 25 Define Boundary and Symmetry Conditions
The simulation of this structure will only be performed within the bounding box of the structure. You may, however, specify certain boundary conditions for each plane (Xmin/Xmax/Ymin/Ymax/Zmin/Zmax) of the bounding box. The boundary conditions are specified in a dialog box you can open by choosing Solve Boundary Conditions ( ) from the main menu. While the boundary dialog box is open, the boundary conditions will be visualized in the structure view as in the picture above. In this simple case, the structure is completely embedded in perfect conducting material, so all the boundary planes may be specified as “electric” planes (which is the default). In addition to these boundary planes, you can also specify “symmetry planes." The specification of each symmetry plane will reduce the simulation time by a factor of two. In our example, the structure is symmetric to a yzplane perpendicular to the xaxis in the center of the structure. The excitation of the fields will be performed by the fundamental mode of the coaxial cable for which the magnetic field is shown below: Plane of structure’s symmetry (yzplane) 26 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The magnetic field has no component tangential to the plane of the structure’s symmetry (the entire field is oriented perpendicular to this plane). If you specify this plane as a “magnetic” symmetry plane, you can direct CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® to limit the simulation to one half of the actual structure while taking the symmetry conditions into account. In order to specify the symmetry condition, you first need to click on the Symmetry Planes tab in the boundary conditions dialog box. For the yzplane symmetry, you can choose magnetic in one of two ways. Either select the appropriate option in the dialog box, or doubleclick on the corresponding symmetry plane visualization in the view and selecting the proper choice from the context menu. Once you have done so, your screen will appear as follows: Finally click OK in the dialog box to store the settings. The boundary visualization will then disappear. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 27 Visualize the Mesh
In a first simulation we will run the transient simulator based on hexahedral grids. Since this is the default mesh type, we don’t need to change anything here. In a later step we show how to apply a tetrahedral mesh to this structure, run the frequency domain solver and compare the results. However, let’s focus on the hexahedral mesh generation options first. The hexahedral mesh generation for the structure analysis will be performed automatically based on an expert system. However, in some situations it may be helpful to inspect the mesh to improve the simulation speed by changing the parameters for the mesh generation. The mesh can be visualized by entering the mesh mode (Mesh Mesh View ( this structure, the mesh information will be displayed as follows: )). For One 2D mesh plane is always kept in view. Because of the symmetry setting, the mesh plane extends across only one half of the structure. You can modify the orientation of the mesh plane by choosing Mesh X/Y/Z Plane Normal ( / / ). Move the plane along its normal direction using Mesh Increment/Decrement Index ( / ) or using the Up / Down cursor keys. The red points in the model are critical points (socalled fixpoints) where the expert system finds it necessary to have mesh lines at these locations. In most cases the automatic mesh generation will produce a reasonable initial mesh, but we recommend that you later spend some time on the mesh generation procedures in the online documentation when you feel familiar with the standard simulation procedure. You should now leave the mesh inspection mode by again toggling: Mesh Mesh View ( ). 28 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Start the Simulation
After defining all necessary parameters, you are ready to start your first simulation. Start the simulation from the transient solver control dialog box: Solve Transient Solver ( ). In this dialog box, you can specify which column of the Smatrix should be calculated. Therefore select the Source type port for which the couplings to all other ports will then be calculated during a single simulation run. In our example, by setting the Source type to Port 1, the Sparameters S11, S21 will be calculated. Setting the Source Type to Port 2 will calculate S22 and S12. In some cases where the full Smatrix is needed, you may also set the Source Type to All Ports which implies that one calculation run will be performed for each port. However for loss free, two port structures (like the structure investigated here), the second calculation run will not be performed since all Sparameters can be calculated from one run using analytic properties of the Smatrix. In this case you should compute the full Smatrix and leave All Ports as your Source type setting. The Sparameters which are calculated will always be normalized to the port impedance (which will be calculated automatically) by default. In this case the port impedance will be approximately 138 ⋅ log( 2 ) = 50.58 Ohms 0.86 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 29 for the coaxial lines with the specified dimensions and dielectric constants. However, sometimes you need the Sparameters for a fixed normalization impedance (e.g. 50 Ohms), so check the Normalize to fixed impedance button and specify the desired normalization impedance in the entry field below. In this example we assume that you want to calculate the Sparameters for a reference impedance of 50 Ohms. Note that the renormalization of the Sparameters is possible only when all Sparameters are calculated (Source Type = All Ports). While solution accuracy mainly depends on the discretization of the structure and can be improved by refining the mesh, the truncation error introduces a second error source in transient simulations. In order to obtain the Sparameters, the transformation of the time signals into the frequency domain requires the signals to have sufficiently decayed to zero. Otherwise a truncation error will occur, causing ripples on the Sparameter curves. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® features an automatic solver control that stops the transient analysis when the energy inside the device, and thus the time signals at the ports, has sufficiently decayed to zero. The ratio between the maximum energy inside the structure at any time and the limit at which the simulation will be stopped is specified in the Accuracy field (in dB). In this example we will limit the maximum truncation error down to 1% for which you should keep the default solver Accuracy at –40 dB. The solver will excite the structure with a Gaussian pulse in the time domain. However, all frequency domain and field data obtained during the simulation will be normalized to a frequency independent input power of 1 W. After setting all these parameters, the dialog box should look like this: 30 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview In order to also achieve accurate results for the line impedance values of static port modes, an adaptive mesh refinement in the port regions is performed as a preprocessing step before the transient simulation itself is started. This procedure refines the port mesh until a defined accuracy value or a maximum number of passes have been reached. These settings can be adjusted in the following dialog box Solve Transient Solver Specials Waveguide: Since we want to simulate a coaxial structure with static port modes, we keep the adaptation enabled with its default settings. You can close the dialog box without any changes and then start the simulation procedure by clicking the Start solver button. A progress bar will appear in the status bar which will update you on the solver’s progress. Information text regarding the operation will appear next to the progress bar. The most important stages are listed below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Analyzing port domains: During this first step, the port regions are analyzed for the following port mesh adaptation. Port mode calculation: Here, the port modes are calculated during the port mesh adaptation. This step is performed several times for each port until a defined accuracy value or a maximum number of passes has been reached. Calculating matrices, preparing and checking model: During this step, the input model is checked for errors such as invalid overlapping materials. Calculating matrices, normal matrix and dual matrix: During these steps, the system of equations, which will subsequently be solved, is set up. Transient analysis, calculating port modes: In this step, the solver calculates the port mode field distributions and propagation characteristics as well as the port impedances if they have not been previously calculated. This information will be used later in the time domain analysis of the structure. Transient analysis, processing excitation: During this stage, an input signal is fed into the stimulation port. The solver then calculates the resulting field distribution inside the structure as well as the mode amplitudes at all other ports. From this information, the frequency dependent Sparameters are calculated in a second step using a Fourier Transformation. Transient analysis, transient field analysis: After the excitation pulse has vanished, there is still electromagnetic field energy inside the structure. The solver then continues to calculate the field distribution and the Sparameters until the 6. 7. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 31 energy inside the structure has decayed below a certain limit (specified by the Accuracy setting in the solver dialog box). Step 3 and 4 describe the structure checking and matrix calculation of the PBA mesh type. In case the FPBA mesh type is chosen either automatically or manually, these two steps are represented as follows: 3. 4. Calculating matrices, preprocessing and meshing subdomains: During this step, your input model is checked and processed. Calculating matrices, computing coefficients: During these steps, the system of equations, which will subsequently be solved, is set up. For this simple structure, the entire analysis takes only a few seconds to complete. Analyze the Port Modes
After the solver has completed the port mode calculation, you can view the results (even if the transient analysis is still running). In order to visualize a particular port mode, you must choose the solution from the navigation tree. You can find the mode in port 1 from NT (stands for the navigation tree) 2D/3D Results Port Modes Port1. If you open this subfolder, you may select the electric or the magnetic mode field. Selecting the folder for the electric field of the first mode e1 will display the port mode and its relevant parameters in the main view: Besides information on the type of mode (in this case TEM), you will also find the propagation constant (beta) at the central frequency. Additionally the port impedance is calculated automatically (line impedance). You will find that due to the port mesh adaptation, the calculated result for the port impedance of 50.72 Ohms agrees well with the analytical solution of 50.58 Ohms. The small difference is caused by the discretization of the structure. Increasing the mesh density will further improve the agreement between simulation and theoretical value. However, the automatic mesh generation always tries to choose a mesh that provides a good trade off between accuracy and simulation speed. 32 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview You can adjust the number and size of arrows in the dialog box, which can be opened by choosing Results Plot Properties (or Plot Properties in the context menu). Furthermore you may perform scalar field visualization by opening the e1 folder and selecting one of its field components (e.g. X). The selected field component will be visualized as a contour plot by default: You may change the type of the scalar visualization by selecting a different visualization option in the corresponding dialog box: Results Plot Properties (or Plot Properties in the context menu). You should play around a bit here to become familiar with the different visualization options before you proceed with the next step. Analyze the SParameters
After a simulation has finished, you should always look at the time signals of the port modes. You can visualize these signals by choosing NT(navigation tree) 1D Results Port signals. After selecting this folder, the following plot should appear: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 33 The input signals are named with reference to their corresponding ports: i1 (for port 1), i2 and so on. The output signals are similarly named “o1,1," “o2,1," etc. so that the number following the comma indicates the corresponding excitation port. To obtain a sufficiently smooth frequency spectrum of the Sparameters, it is important that all time signals decay to zero before the simulation stops. The simulation will stop automatically when this criterion is met. The most interesting results are, of course, the Sparameters themselves. You may obtain a visualization of these parameters in linear scale by choosing NT 1D Results S linear. You can change the axis scaling by selecting Results 1D Plot Options Plot Properties from the main menu (or the context menu). In addition, you can display and hide an axis marker by toggling Results 1D Plot Options Show Axis Marker ( ). The marker can be moved either with the cursor keys (Left or Right) or by picking and dragging it with the mouse. 34 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The marker can also be adjusted automatically to determine the minimum of the transmission (S1,2 or S2,1) at about 12.88 GHz by selecting Results 1D Plot Options Move Axis Marker to Minimum. In the same way as above, the Sparameters can be visualized in logarithmic scale (dB) by choosing NT 1D Results S dB. The phase can be visualized by choosing NT 1D Results arg(S). Furthermore the Sparameters can be visualized in a Smith Chart (NT 1D Results Smith Chart). In all 1D plots multiple curve markers can be added by selecting Results 1D Plot Options Add Curve Marker ( ) as shown exemplarily in the Smith Chart view above. The markers can be moved separately along the curve by picking and dragging them with the mouse. You may activate or deactivate the visualization of all markers by choosing Results 1D Plot Options Show Curve Markers ( ) or delete them all with the option Results 1D Plot Options Remove All Curve Markers. Adaptive Mesh Refinement
As already mentioned above, the mesh resolution influences the results. The expert systembased approach analyzes the geometry and tries to identify the parts that are critical to the electromagnetic behavior of the device. The mesh will then automatically be refined in these regions. However, due to the complexity of electromagnetic problems, this approach may not be able to determine all critical domains in the structure. To circumvent this problem, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® features an adaptive mesh refinement which uses the results of a previous solver run in order to improve the expert system’s settings. Activate the adaptive mesh refinement by checking the corresponding option in the solver control dialog box. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 35 Click the Start button. The solver will now perform several mesh refinement passes until the Sparameters no longer change significantly between two subsequent passes. The SParameter based stop criteria is activated by default, however, it is also possible to use any kind of 0D result templates instead, or in combination. Please refer to the online help for more detailed information. After two passes have been completed, the following dialog box will appear: Since the automatic mesh adaptation procedure has successfully adjusted the expert system’s settings in order to meet the given accuracy level (2% by default), you may now switch off the adaptive refinement procedure for subsequent calculations. The expert system will apply the determined rules to the structure even if it is modified afterward. This powerful approach allows you to run the mesh adaptation procedure just once and then perform parametric studies or optimizations on the structure without the need for further mesh refinement passes. You should now confirm deactivation of the mesh adaptation by clicking the Yes button. When the analysis has finished, the Sparameters and fields show the converged result. The progress of the mesh refinement can be checked by looking at the NT 1D 36 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Results Adaptive Meshing folder. This folder contains a curve which displays the maximum difference between two Sparameter results belonging to subsequent passes. This curve can be shown by selecting NT 1D Results Adaptive Meshing Delta S. Since the mesh adaptation requires only two passes for this example, the Delta S curve consists of a single data point only. The result shows that the maximum difference of the S parameters from both runs is around 0.25% for the whole frequency range. The mesh adaptation stops automatically when the difference is below 2%. This limit can be changed in the adaptive mesh refinement Properties (accessible from within the solver dialog box). Additionally, the convergence of the Sparameter results can be visualized by selecting NT 1D Results Adaptive Meshing S linear S1,1 versus Passes, and NT 1D Results Adaptive Meshing S linear S2,1 versus Passes, respectively. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 37 You can see that expert systembased meshing provides a good mesh for this structure. The convergence of the Sparameters shows only small variations from the results obtained using the expert system generated mesh to the converged solution. In practice it often proves wise to activate the adaptive mesh refinement to ensure convergence of the results. (This might not be necessary for structures with which you are already familiar when you can use your experience to refine the automatic mesh.) Analyze the Electromagnetic Field at Various Frequencies
To understand the behavior of an electromagnetic device, it is often useful to get insight into the electromagnetic field distribution. In this example, it may be interesting to see the difference between the fields at frequencies where the transmission is large or small. The fields can be recorded at arbitrary frequencies during a simulation. However, it is not possible to store the field patterns at all available frequencies as this would require a tremendous amount of memory space. You should, therefore, define some frequency points at which the solver will record the fields during a subsequent analysis. These field samples are called monitors. Monitors can be defined in a dialog box that opens after choosing Solve Field Monitors ( ) from the main menu. You may need to switch back to the modeler mode by selecting the Components folder in the navigation tree before the monitor definition is activated. 38 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview After selecting the proper Type for the monitor, you may specify its frequency in the Frequency field. Clicking Apply stores the monitor while leaving the dialog box open. All frequencies are specified in the frequency unit previously set to GHz. For this analysis you should add the following monitors: Field type EField EField HField/Surface current HField/Surface current Frequency / GHz 3 12.8 3 12.8 All defined monitors are listed in the NT(navigation tree) Monitors folder. Within this folder you may select a particular monitor to reveal its parameters in the main view. You should now run the simulation again. When the simulation finishes, you can visualize the recorded field by choosing the corresponding item from the navigation tree. The monitor results can be found in the NT 2D/3D Results folder. The results are ordered according to their physical quantity (EField/HField/Currents/Power flow). Note: Since you have specified a full Smatrix calculation, two simulation runs would generally be required. For each of these runs, the field would be recorded as specified in the monitors, and the results would be presented in the navigation tree, giving the corresponding stimulation port in brackets. However, in this loss free example, the second run is not necessary, so you will find that the monitor data are not available. You can advise the solver to perform both simulation runs even if they are not necessary for the Sparameter calculation by deselecting the option Consider two port reciprocity under the Solver tab in the solver’s Specials dialog box. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 39 You can investigate the 3D electric field distribution by selecting NT 2D/3D Results EField efield(f=3)[1]. The plot should look similar to the picture below: If you select the electric field at 12.8 GHz (NT 2D/3D Results EField efield(f=12.8)[1], you obtain the following plot: You should now play around with the various field visualization options for the 3D vector plot (Results Plot Properties.) 40 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The surface currents can be visualized by selecting NT 2D/3D Results Surface Current hfield(f=3)[1]. You should obtain a plot similar to the following picture: You may now change the plot options in the plot dialog box: Result Plot Properties (or Plot Properties from the context menu). You can obtain a field animation by clicking the Start button located in the Phase/Animation frame in this dialog box. Here the phase of the field will be automatically varied between 0 and 360 degrees. You can stop the animation by clicking the Stop button or pressing the ESC key. After clicking in the main view with the left mouse button, you can also change the phase gradually by using the Left and Right cursor keys. At the frequency of 3 GHz you can see how the current flows through the structure. If you perform the same steps with the other magnetic field monitor at 12.8 GHz, you will see that almost no current moves along the 90degree bend of the coaxial cable. After obtaining a rough overview of the electromagnetic field distribution in 3D, you can inspect the fields in more detail by analyzing some cross sectional cuts through the structure. To do this, select an electric or magnetic field (no surface currents) for display and select the Results 3D Fields on 2D Plane ( ) option. The same plot options are available in the 2D plot mode you have already used for the port mode visualization. Since the data is derived from a 3D result, you may additionally specify the location of the plane at which the fields will be visualized. This can be done in the corresponding Results Plot Properties dialog box by changing the Cutplane Control and Location settings at the bottom of the dialog boxes. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 41 Due to the limited space, not all plotting options can be explained here. However, the following gallery shows some possible plot options. Can you reproduce them? Tangential component of surface current at 3 GHz Vector plot of hfield at 3 GHz using 3D Fields on 2D Plane option 3D vector plot of hfield at 3 GHz using hedgehog option 3D vector plot of surface current at 3 GHz using hedgehog option X component of hfield at 3 GHz using 3D Fields on 2D Plane option Vector plot of efield at 3 GHz using 3D Fields on 2D Plane option Abs plot of abs hfield at 3 GHz using isosurface option Several 3D Fields on 2D Plane plots of hfield using Overlay Multiple Plots option 42 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Parameterization of the Model
The steps above demonstrate how to enter and analyze a simple structure. However, structures will usually be analyzed in order to improve their performance. This procedure may be called “design” in contrast to the “analysis” done before. After you receive some information on how to improve the structure, you will need to change the structure’s parameters by simply reentering the structure. This, of course, is not the best solution. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® offers a lot of options to parametrically describe the structure in order to easily change its parameters. The History List function, as described previously, is a general option, but for simple parameter changes there is an easier solution described below. Let’s assume that you want to change the stub length of the coaxial cable’s inner conductor. The easiest way to do this is to enter the modeler mode by selecting the NT(navigation tree) Components folder. Select all ports by clicking on the NT Ports folder. Then press the right mouse button to choose Hide All Ports from the context menu. The structure plot should look like this: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 43 Now select the long conductor by doubleclicking on it with the left mouse button: You can now choose Edit Object Properties ( ) (or Properties from the context menu) which will open a list showing the history of the shape’s creation: Select the “Define cylinder” operation in the tree folder “component1:long conductor” from the history tree (see above). The corresponding shape will be highlighted in the main window. After clicking the Edit button in the History Tree, a dialog box will appear showing the parameters of this shape. 44 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview In this dialog box you will find the length of the cylinder (Wmin=11) as specified during the shape creation. Change this parameter to a value of –9 and click OK. Since you are going to change the structure, the previously calculated results will no longer match the current structure; therefore, the following dialog box will appear: Here you may specify whether to store the old model together with its results in a cache or as a new file or just go ahead and delete the current results. In this case you should simply accept the default choice and click OK. After a few seconds, the structure plot will change showing the new structure with the different stub length. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 45 You can now dismiss the History Tree dialog box by clicking the Close button. Generally, you can change all parameters of any shape by selecting the shape and editing its properties. This fully parametric structural modeling is one of the most outstanding features of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The parametric structure definition also works if some objects have been constructed relative to each other using local coordinate systems. In this case, the program will try to identify all the picked faces according to their topological order rather than their absolute position in space. Changes in parameters occasionally alter the topology of the structure too severely so that the structure update may fail. In this case, the History List function offers powerful options to circumvent these problems. Please refer to the online documentation, or contact technical support. In addition to directly changing the parameters, you may also assign variables to the structure’s parameters. The easiest way to do this is to enter a variable name in an expression field rather than a numerical value. Therefore, you should now open the cylinder dialog box again as shown above. Afterward, you can just enter the string “length” in the Wmin field. 46 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The dialog box should look as follows: Since the parameter “length” is still undefined, a new dialog box will open after you click OK in the cylinder dialog box: You can now assign a value to the new parameter by entering 11 in the Value field. You may also provide a text in the Description field so that you can later remember the meaning of the parameter. Click OK to create the parameter and update the model. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 47 All defined parameters will be listed in the parameter docking window as shown below: You can change the value of this parameter in the Value field. Afterward, the message “Some variables have been modified. Press Edit>Update Parametric Changes” will appear in the main view. In addition to using the menu command to update the structure, you can select the corresponding toolbar button ( ). You can also select Update from the context menu which appears when you press the right mouse button in the parameter list. You may need to click on an empty field in the list first in order to obtain this context menu. 48 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview When performing this update operation, the structure will be regenerated according to the current parameter value. You can verify that parameter values between 7 and 11.5 give some useful results. The function Edit Animate Parameter is also useful in this regard. Parameter Sweeps and Processing of Parametric Result Data
Since you have now successfully parameterized your structure, it might be interesting to see how the Sparameters change when the length of the conductor is modified. The easiest way to obtain these variation results is to use the Parameter Sweep tool which you can access from within the transient solver dialog box by clicking the Par. Sweep button to reveal the following dialog box: In this dialog box you can specify calculation “sequences” which will consist of various parameter combinations. To add such a sequence, click the New Seq. button now. Then click the New Par... button to add a parameter variation to the sequence: In the resulting dialog box you can select the name of the parameter to vary in the Name field. Then you can specify the lower (From) and upper (To) bounds for the parameter CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 49 variation after checking the Sweep item. Finally enter the number of steps in which the parameter should be varied in the Samples field. In this example, you should perform a sweep From 10.0 To 11.5 with 5 Samples. After you click the OK button, the parameter sweep dialog box should look as follows: Note that you can define an arbitrary number of sequences with each of them containing an unlimited number of different parameter combinations. In the next step you have to specify which results you are interested in as a result of the parameter sweep. Therefore select “SParameter…” from the Result watch combo box. A dialog box opens in which you can specify an Sparameter to store: First select the option of recording the magnitude of S1,1 in dB by checking Mag. (dB) in the Type field and clicking the OK button. 50 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Next add another “watch” for the magnitude of S2,1 in dB as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Select “SParameter…” from the Result watch combo box. Specify Mag. (dB) in the Type field. Select 2 in the Output Port field. Click OK. The parameter sweep dialog box should look as follows: Now start the parameter sweep by clicking the Start button. Note that the parameter sweep uses the previously specified solver settings. If you change the solver settings (e.g. for activating the adaptive mesh refinement), make sure that the modified settings are stored by clicking Apply in the solver control dialog box. After the solver has finished its work, close the dialog box by clicking the Close button. The navigation tree will contain a new item called “Tables” from which you should select the item Tables S1,1 in dB first: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 51 Similarly, you can also plot the magnitude of the transmission coefficient by selecting Tables S2,1 in dB. 52 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview More properties for parametric data visualization can be accessed from the table properties dialog box (Results Table Properties): After you change the Plot mode to Tune, a slider appears which provides quick access to the parametric result data. Dragging the slider allows you to quickly select the corresponding result for the parameter value as shown in the Selected Value or Actual Value fields. Note that no interpolation of result data is performed here. For more than one parameter it may therefore be, that no parametric result is available for the currently Selected Values. In this case, that data point whose parametric settings are closest to the selected ones will be displayed. However, the actual parametric settings of the currently displayed data point will always be shown in the Actual Value field. Once you close the table properties dialog box by clicking OK or Cancel, the parametric view will be restored. Refer to the online documentation for more information about the many options for displaying parametric data. It may be interesting to see how the location of the transition minimum changes as a function of the parameter. This and other special result data can be automatically computed using Result Templates. Open the corresponding dialog box by choosing Results Template Based Postprocessing ( ): CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 53 First, load the transmission Sparameter data into the post processing chain in order to later derive its minimum location. Select the postprocessing step S Parameter from the list of available 1D result templates to open the following dialog box: In this dialog box, you should specify S21 in dB scaling (similar to the settings before in the parameter sweep). The new postprocessing step will be listed in the dialog box: Based on the broadband Sparameter data, you can now extract the location of the minimum which is a single data point (or 0D Result). Switch to the 0D Results page and select 0D Value From 1D Result from the list available 0D result templates. 54 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview A dialog box will open where you can specify details about the postprocessing step: The only available 1D data is S21 in dB, so you have no choice in the 1D Result list. Since you want to know the location of the curve (y) minimum, you should choose x at yMinimum as the desired result from the Select 0D Result list. Clicking OK will complete the definition of the specific post processing chain in this example. After any solver run, these postprocessing operations are automatically carried out, and the result of each of these steps is stored in a table. Once a Result Template is defined, a corresponding line is automatically added to the Result watch list: Restart the entire parameter sweep now. You will be asked what to do with the currently available result data. In this dialog box, select Delete current results and click OK. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 55 Of course, the additional post processing steps could also be defined before the first parameter sweep is started, but for didactical reasons we have separated this task into two steps here. Once the solver finishes the parameter sweep, you can access the result template data from the Tables 0D Results S21dB_x folder in the navigation tree: This curve clearly illustrates how the location (=frequency) of the transition minimum changes as a function of the geometrical parameter. Because of the limited scope of this manual, we give a very brief introduction to this powerful feature, so please refer to the online documentation for more information. Automatic Optimization of the Structure
Let’s now assume you wish to obtain the minimum of the transmission S2,1 at 13 GHz (which can be achieved within a parameter range of 10 to 11 according to the curve above). By measuring the curve (activate the axis marker tool by choosing Results 1D Plot Options Axis Marker), you can check that the desired parameter value is around 10.96. However, figuring out the exact parameter value may be a lengthy task which can be performed equally well automatically. Before you continue to optimize this structure, set the length parameter to a value within the valid parameter range (e.g. 10.5) and update the structure. You must enter the modeler mode (e.g. by clicking at the “Components” item in the navigation tree) before you can modify the parameters. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® offers a powerful builtin optimizer feature for these kinds of parametrical optimizations. To use the optimizer, simply open the transient solver control dialog box as before. In this dialog box, click the Optimize button to open the optimizer control dialog box: 56 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview First check the desired parameter(s) for the optimization in the Parameters tab of the optimization dialog box (the “length” parameter should be checked). Next specify the minimum and maximum values for this parameter during the optimization. Enter a parameter range between 10 and 11. For this example, the other settings can be kept as default. Refer to the online documentation for more information on these settings. The next step is to specify the optimization goal. Click on the Goals tab. Now you can specify a list of goals to achieve during the optimization. In this example, the target is to move the minimum of the Sparameter S2,1 to a given frequency, so define an “S Parameter” goal by selecting it from the list that appears when you select CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 57 the Add new goal entry. Once you have selected the proper goal type, the following dialog box should appear: In this dialog box, you should first select the magnitude of the Sparameter in dB for optimization by clicking on the Mag.(dB) entry in the Type frame. Next specify which Sparameter should be optimized. Select S2,1 by setting Port = 2, Mode = 1 in the Output frame and Port = 1, Mode = 1 in the Input frame. Now specify the actual goal for the previously specified Sparameter data. Since you want to move the minimum of S2,1 in this example, you should select the move min operator in the conditions frame. Afterwards, set the Frequency to which the minimum should be moved to 13 GHz. If more than one minimum exists in the Sparameter data, you can limit the frequency range for searching the minimum in the Frequency range frame. In this example, you can just skip these settings and accept the defaults. After you click OK, the optimizer dialog box should look as follows: 58 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Since you now have specified optimization parameters and goals, the next step is to start the optimization procedure by clicking the Start button. The optimizer will show the progress of the optimization in an output window in the Info tab which will be activated automatically. When the optimization has finished, you should confirm the new parameter settings have been saved. The optimizer output window will show the best parameter settings with respect to the given goal. Note that due to the sophisticated optimization technology, only six transient solver runs were required to find the optimal solution with high accuracy. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 59 You can now visualize the Sparameters for the optimal parameter setting (length =10.967) and should obtain the following picture (you can activate the axis marker tool by choosing Results 1D Plot Options Axis Marker to verify that the location of the peak is at 13 GHz). Instead of defining a “move min” goal for the optimization, you could also have chosen to optimize the value of the previously defined result template S21dB_x to be equal to the desired resonance frequency of 13 GHz. Comparison of Time and Frequency Domain Solver Results
So far, all explanations have focused on the transient solver. In the next steps you will compare the results of the transient solver based on hexahedral grids with the frequency domain solver using tetrahedral grids. Since these two simulation methods are based on different techniques, this comparison allows you to verify the accuracy of the results. Although the transient solver is much faster for this and many other examples, the frequency domain solver may be the better choice for lower frequency problems or filters. In the latter case, the primary simulation and optimization should be performed using the frequency domain solver whereas the final verification can then be done using the transient solver. The seamless combination of these different techniques in a homogeneous environment is another outstanding feature of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The frequency domain solver may not be available to you due to license restrictions. Please contact your sales office for more information. Before you recalculate the Sparameters using the frequency domain solver, you should first copy the results from the transient solver into a new folder for easier comparison afterward. Select the 1D Results folder in the navigation tree, and choose Edit Add New Tree Folder from the main menu. You can then assign a name (e.g. “Comparison”) to the newly created navigation tree item. After creating the new folder, you can select the 1D Results S dB folder and choose Edit Copy. Finally, select the newly created 1D Results Comparison folder and choose Edit Paste. Note that the copied result curves are fixed and will be neither deleted nor changed when parameters are changed or S 60 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview parameters are recalculated. For organizational purposes, you should now click on each of the new curve entries in the 1D Results Comparison folder, choose Edit Rename (or just press the F2 key) and add an appendix TD to the curve name in order to indicate that this is a result from the transient solver. The navigation tree should finally look as follows: Once you save the transient solver results for later comparison, you can simply open the frequency domain solver dialog box by choosing Solve Frequency Domain Solver ( ) which will open the following dialog box: The default settings of the frequency domain solver use a tetrahedral mesh, automatic mesh adaptation and full Sparameter matrix calculation so that you do not need to change anything here. The Sparameter normalization to 50 ohms also activates automatically since you have already specified this for the transient simulation before. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 61 You can now perform the frequency domain simulation by clicking the Start button and confirming the deletion of the nonfrequency domain solver results. In order to see the tetrahedral mesh used for this simulation while the solver is running, activate the mesh mode (Mesh Mesh View ( )): The solver first performs a mesh adaptation at the ports before the mesh inside the structure is adapted at the highest frequency of interest in the second step. Once the mesh adaptation has converged, the solver calculates the Sparameters as a function of frequency by using its fast sweep capability. When the solver has finished its work, you can again view the results by selecting 1D Results S dB from the navigation tree: As you can see, the results are quite similar to the results previously obtained from the transient solver. A better comparison can now be achieved by copying and pasting the frequency domain solver results to the 1D Results Comparison folder again. You should again add an appendix “FD” to the new frequency domain solver results: 62 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview As you can see, the results from the transient solver using hexahedral grids and the frequency domain solver using tetrahedral grids are in excellent agreement here. Summary
This example should have given you an overview of the key concepts of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. You should now have a basic idea of how to do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Model the structures by using the solid modeler Specify the solver parameters, check the mesh and start the simulation Use the adaptive mesh refinement feature Visualize the port modes Visualize the time signals and Sparameters Define field monitors at various frequencies Visualize the electromagnetic field distributions Define the structure using structure parameters Use the parameter sweep tool and visualize parametric results Use result templates for customized post processing Perform automatic optimizations Compare the results from the transient solver and the frequency domain solver If you are familiar with all these topics, you have a very good starting point for further improving your usage of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. For more information on a particular topic, we recommend you browse through the online help system which can be opened with Help Help Contents. If you have any further questions or remarks, do not hesitate to contact your technical support team. We also strongly recommend that you participate in one of our special training classes held regularly at a location near you. Ask your support center for details. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 63 Chapter 3 — Solver Overview
Which Solver to Use
Since we have mainly focused on the transient solver and somewhat on the general purpose frequency domain solver in the previous example, it’s time to clarify which solver fits which application best. The transient solver is general and can solve the widest range of electromagnetic field problems. However, for some applications, specialized solvers will show much better performance while maintaining the same high level of accuracy. The table here lists a few typical applications together with the solvers that are most frequently used for solving the particular problem. Please note that because of the very wide application spectrum, not all possible examples can be listed in the table. Furthermore, depending on the particular structure, it may be that other solvers are more efficient for a particular application than those shown in the table. Therefore use this table as a guideline rather than a rule for which solver to use. Application Name Connectors (coaxial, multipin) Strip lines (micro strip, coplanar lines) Strip line circuits Crosstalk calculations Printed circuit boards Digital circuit simulation Packaging problems Network parameter (SPICE) extraction Nonlinear diode applications EMI problems Radiation problems Shielding (irradiation) problems Monopole, dipole and multipole antennas Patch antennas Conformal antennas Helical and spiral antennas Antenna arrays Waveguides (hollow, dielectric, coaxial) Transmission line networks Optical wave guides Optical couplers Solver Type(s) Transient Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient Transient Transient Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient Transient Transient, Integral equation Transient Transient Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient, Integral equation Transient Transient Transient Transient Transient 64 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Application Name Optical diplexers and filters Solver Type(s) Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain, Resonant Fast Sparameter Frequency Domain Transient, General Purpose Frequency Domain, Resonant Fast Sparameter Frequency Domain Eigenmode Eigenmode General Purpose Frequency Domain, Eigenmode, Transient General Purpose Frequency Domain, Eigenmode General Purpose Frequency Domain with Tetrahedral mesh Integral equation, Transient Integral equation Integral equation, Transient Integral equation, Transient Filters and diplexers Cavities, resonator design Traveling wave structures Periodic problems (frequency selective surfaces, periodic band gap structures) Periodic problem with nonzero phase shift Periodic problems with nonrectangular lattice (unit cell) Antenna placement Antenna placement (electrically large) RCS (electrically large) Electrically large antennas Please note that the application range of the transient analysis can be extended significantly toward more resonant devices by applying some advanced digital signal processing techniques rather than simply using a Discrete Fourier Transform. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® features an Auto Regressive (AR) Filter capable of predicting the longterm response of a device from a shortterm response. The performance of the transient solver also degrades if the device operates at very low frequencies. In these cases, the general purpose frequency domain solver may be faster, especially since in most cases a few frequency samples are sufficient to characterize the structure’s behavior by using the fast broadband frequency sweep tool. On the other hand, the performance of the frequency domain solver decreases more rapidly with the number of mesh cells than the performance of the transient solver. Besides these general considerations, there are also some applications that require the selection of a particular solver since the corresponding electromagnetic problem can be solved only by using the corresponding method: 1. 2. Structures containing nonlinear diodes: The frequency domain solver can not handle nonlinearities. Therefore the time domain solver must be used for these applications. Very large structures / high frequencies: The frequency domain solver requires the solution of a matrix equation. This becomes very slow and memory intensive when the number of mesh cells is large. Whenever the number of cells is in the order of several million, the time domain solver or the integral equation solver should be used. For electrically large problems, using the integral equation solver may be the best option. Periodic structures with nonzero phase shift: The transient solver can handle only periodic structures with zero phase shifts, so the frequency domain solver must be used instead. The phase shift between adjacent boundary planes or the 3. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 65 4. geometrical angle of incidence has to be specified in the boundary condition dialog box. Note that both the electrical phase angle between the boundary planes and the geometrical angle of incidence are not identical. The frequency domain solver in combination with tetrahedral grids also offers a special Unit Cell feature allowing the simulation of periodic structures with a nonrectangular lattice. Calculation of Sparameters for structures with large losses at the waveguide ports: The frequency domain solver can handle lossy ports and can calculate waveguide port modes for lossy wave guides. Summarizing these statements, the following diagrams show a rough guideline for the application ranges of the methods: Transient Analysis with ARFilter Transient Analysis Resonant Frequency Domain analysis General purpose Frequency Domain Analysis Highly resonating devices General Purpose Frequency Domain Transient Analysis Integral Equation Frequency (weaklyresonating device) You should now have an impression of the pros and cons of the methods. If you are not sure which solver may best suit your application, please contact your local sales office for assistance. 66 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview General Purpose Frequency Domain Computations
The basic procedure of running the frequency domain solver is demonstrated in the example above. The following explanations provide some more information about the settings in the frequency domain solver dialog box which you can open by choosing Solve Frequency Domain Solver ( ): The Method field allows for the selection of the principal solution method. Refer to the section Which Solver to Use earlier in this chapter for more information concerning the differences between these three techniques. The General Purpose solver can be seen as the counterpart of the transient solver. The other two solvers have some very special applications and are described in the next section. The following explanations focus on the General Purpose solver. A special feature of the General Purpose solver is the support of both hexahedral and tetrahedral meshes. In most cases, you will compare the results from the tetrahedral frequency domain solver and the hexahedral transient solver. This selection gives you the ability to compare the results from two completely independent simulation techniques. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 67 The tetrahedral mesh generation normally generates relatively coarse initial meshes. Therefore we strongly recommend using the Adaptive tetrahedral mesh refinement option in order to ensure accurate results. The mesh adaptation strategies of the transient solver and the frequency domain solver are fundamentally different. The transient solver runs the entire broadband simulation for every mesh adaptation pass and evaluates the worstcase deviation of two subsequent Sparameter results (broadband). The mesh refinement is then done based on information from the broadband result data. In contrast, the frequency domain solver runs the mesh adaptation at a single frequency point only. Once the adaptation is complete, the broadband results are computed by keeping the adapted mesh fixed. Even though this procedure is a little less safe in general, it normally provides quite good results. Since the frequency domain solver mesh adaptation runs only at a single frequency point, the location of this point within the frequency spectrum is very important. For weakly resonating devices, it is usually a good choice to select the highest frequency of interest for the mesh adaptation (which is the default setting). This will ensure that fields with the shortest wavelength in the frequency sweep are still sampled properly. The situation is different for strongly resonating devices as shown in the following picture (e.g. Low Pass Filter (3 Stubs) example): This low pass type of structure has very low transmission at the highest frequency of interest. Running the mesh adaptation at this frequency will not provide sufficient information about the actual filter characteristics. Therefore the adaptation will keep refining the mesh around the input port since all the energy is stored there and too little information is available about the behavior of the fields inside the structure. In cases like the one shown above (typically filters), it is very important to specify the adaptation frequency such that it is located in the pass band of the filter. This can be done by unchecking the Auto button in the Adapt.Freq. line in the frequency list. Afterwards you can specify the adaptation frequency in the From column of the list. Furthermore it is possible to define even more adaptation frequency points by using the corresponding drop down list as shown for the highlighted line below: 68 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Another important difference between the transient solver and the frequency domain solver is the number of frequency samples to be calculated. Whereas in the time domain the number of frequency samples has almost no influence on the solver time, a classical frequency domain calculation has to carry out the simulation frequency point by frequency point. Every frequency point requires a complete solver run. The frequency domain solver used by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, however, uses a special broadband frequency sweep technique in order to derive the full broadband spectrum from a relatively small number of frequency samples. In order to make use of this technique, you should allow an automatic sampling of frequency points by checking the Auto button in a Frequency line and then activating the Use broadband frequency sweep option. The solver will then automatically adapt the selection of frequency points so that the broadband curve can be obtained by calculating a minimum number of samples. To store the fields at particular frequencies, monitors need to be defined in advance as described previously for the transient solver. These monitor frequencies are then added to the list of calculated frequency points if the Add samples for monitors option is activated. The frequency domain solver cannot calculate the fields at a frequency of zero. Therefore a zero frequency will automatically be shifted to a reasonably small value. The Sparameters and fields can be accessed as usual from the items in the navigation tree. By default, the tetrahedral frequency domain solver uses second order elements to get an excellent sampling of the fields at high frequencies. This also allows the use of relatively few elements per wavelength as compared with the first order elements used by the solvers based on hexahedral grids. However, some structures require a relatively fine mesh due to their geometry which is much finer than required to properly sample the wave phenomena. Typical application examples for this are PCBlike structures or IC packages. In such cases, using first CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 69 order elements rather than the standard second order elements can reduce simulation time and memory requirement significantly. To use first order elements, select 1st (low memory) in the Solver order field in the Specials dialog box: Another important difference between the frequency domain solver and the transient solver is the way both simulators handle dispersive materials. For a given list of material parameters at various frequencies, the transient solver always needs to fit a certain dispersion model to the data (first or second order). During the simulation, the broadband material behavior will then be taken from the model rather than using the originally specified data. However, since the frequency domain solver computes the broadband sweep by a sequence of individual frequency point calculations, the solver can simply interpolate the given list of frequency points directly. As a result, the frequency domain solver can use userspecified material property tables more directly than the transient solver can. For the sake of comparing these two solvers results, it may be advantageous to configure the frequency domain solver to use the same material model fitted data as the transient solver does by checking the Constant fit and dispersion fit as in Time Domain box in the solver Specials dialog box. 70 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The following summarizes the input necessary for frequency domain analysis calculations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Select an appropriate project template (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define the structure. Set the frequency range. Set the boundary conditions (optional). Define the excitation ports. Set the monitors (optional). Start the frequency domain solver. Analyze the results (Sparameters, field patterns, result templates, etc.). Resonant Frequency Domain Computations
Besides the general purpose solver mentioned above, the frequency domain solver also features two additional solver methods, which specializes in the simulation of strongly resonant structures such as filters: 1. 2. Resonant: Fast SParameter Resonant: SParameter, fields Please note that both solvers are currently based on hexahedral grids only. For more information, refer to the online help Filter tutorial. Resonant: Fast SParameter
The Resonant: Fast SParameter method calculates only the Sparameters and does not produce any field results. The solver is able to handle weak losses such as lossy dielectrics, etc. The strong advantage of this method is its performance which can, in some cases, be significantly better than any other simulation method. Despite its limitations, the performance advantage makes this solver the ideal choice for certain types of applications. Using this solver is relatively straightforward. The first step is to select the corresponding method in the solver control dialog box (Solve Frequency Domain Solver ( )): CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 71 The Accuracy setting is not critical so that it can normally be kept at the default of 1e6. The number of uniformly spaced frequency samples can be specified in the Samples field in basically the same way as it is done for the transient solver. The number of frequency samples only slightly influences the performance of the simulation, but excessive values should be avoided since this may require a lot of disk space and may slow down further post processing operations. The only setting which requires a bit more explanation here is the Eval.Freq. field. The default setting equals the center frequency of the simulation frequency range. Material properties (including losses) will be calculated at this frequency and remain fixed over the entire frequency band. The same happens for waveguide ports for which the mode patterns are also calculated at the center frequency. While the port mode pattern does not change as a function of frequency for hollow waveguides or coaxial lines, it does change for microstrip and coplanar lines. Therefore, using a fixed mode pattern may cause some mismatch at the ports and result in slightly inaccurate Sparameters for frequencies further away from the Eval.Freq. However, the resulting error is normally quite small. Especially for narrowband structures (which are the primary application area for this solver), the frequency bands of interest are relatively small, and the variation of the material properties or port modes within these frequency bands is negligible. After running the solver by clicking the Start button, you can access its Sparameter results as usual from within the navigation tree. 72 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview The following summarizes the simulation flow for this solver module: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Select an appropriate project template for filter structures (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define structure. Set frequency range. Set closed boundary conditions (optional). Define excitation ports. Start Resonant: Fast Sparameter frequency domain solver. Analyze results (Sparameters, result templates). Resonant: SParameter, fields
The main difference between the Resonant: SParameter, fields solver and the Resonant: Fast SParameter solver is the calculation of fields in addition to the Sparameters. However, performance is significantly affected by the field calculation such that this solver should only be used when the calculation of fields is essential. Note that the Resonant: SParameter, fields solver is limited to handle loss free structures only. The specification of which fields to calculate is done by the standard monitor concept as explained earlier in this manual. A very interesting feature of this solver is that some intermediate information concerning the fields is stored even if no field monitors are specified. Once a simulation is finished and the Sparameters are visualized, it is relatively fast and straightforward to obtain the fields at certain frequencies. To demonstrate this feature, let us assume that you ran a simulation for a filter structure using the Resonant: SParameter, fields solver and are now inspecting the Sparameters: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 73 You may now be particularly interested in the fields at the resonance peak. The easiest way to obtain this information is to place the axis marker at the location of the resonance (Results 1D Plot Options Show Axis Marker ( )): Finally choose Results Calculate fields at axis marker to obtain the fields at this particular frequency. The field computation itself will be relatively quick since a lot of intermediate data have already been stored during the initial Sparameter calculation. All other settings are identical to the Resonant: Fast SParameter described above. Therefore the typical simulation flow is as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Select an appropriate project template for filter structures (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define structure. Set frequency range. Set closed boundary conditions. Define excitation ports. Define monitors (optional). Start Resonant: Sparameter, fields frequency domain solver. Analyze results (Sparameters, result templates, fields, etc.). 74 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Integral Equation Computations
An integral equation computation is an analysis in the frequency domain based on the surface mesh. The model setup is very similar to a general purpose frequency domain computation. The following explanations provide some more information about the settings in the integral equation solver dialog box. Integral Equation Solver Parameters You can open the dialog by choosing Solve Integral Equation Solver ( ). As with the general purpose frequency domain computation, an integral equation calculation has to carry out the simulation frequency by frequency. Every frequency point requires a complete solver run. A special broadband frequency sweep technique can be used in order to derive the full broadband spectrum from a relatively small number of frequency samples. In order to make use of this technique, you should allow an automatic sampling of frequency points by checking the Auto button in a Frequency line and then activating the Use broadband frequency sweep option. The solver will then automatically adapt the selection of frequency points so that the broadband curve can be obtained by calculating a minimum number of samples. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 75 To store the fields at particular frequencies, monitors need to be defined in advance as described previously for the transient solver. These monitor frequencies are then added to the list of calculated frequencies. The integral equation solver cannot calculate the fields at a frequency of zero. Therefore a zero frequency will automatically be shifted to a reasonably small value. The Sparameters and fields can be accessed as usual from the items in the navigation tree. To either run a computation on a network computer or to distribute several frequency samples on different network computers, mark the check box “Use distributed computing” and select the method “Run remote calculation” or “Distribute frequency samples” respectively. Advanced settings are available in the special integral equation solver settings. This can be opened by choosing Solve Integral Equation Solver Specials… General The solver order option allows the specification whether the integral equation solver uses first, second or thirdorder accuracy. First order is the default due to its low memory costs. If the structure is geometrically complex and therefore requires a huge amount of memory, firstorder is the best choice. A calculation with second or third order provides more accuracy (requires more memory). If a mixed order is specified the solver chooses the most appropriate order for each surface automatically. If the double precision option is activated the solver uses doubleprecision (64bit) for representing floatingpoint values. As default the solver uses singleprecision (32bit). The singleprecision representation saves memory whereas the doubleprecision representation might speed up the convergence of the iterative equation system solver. Also it is possible to enable the fast RCS sweep and an infinite ground plane. 76 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Linear solver The solver type option allows you to specify whether an iterative (MLFMM, MoM) or a direct linear equation system solver (direct MoM) should be used. As a default, the frequency domain solver automatically chooses the solver type. The multi level fast multipole method (MLFMM) is of special interest for electrically large models. For more details on the MLFMM please see below. The iterative (MoM) solver is ideal for electrically relatively small problems with a large number of surfaces. Reduction of the costs of typically dense system matrices of O(N²) in memory and O(N³) in time to O(N log(N)) in both. For simulations with a low number of surfaces the direct (MoM) solver is recommended. For the iterative solver, a preconditioner can be selected. The default value is "Auto" which chooses automatically one of the following preconditioners: For most applications the preconditioner "Type 1 (AP)" is the best choice in terms of calculation time, memory requirements and number of iterations. For simulations with several excitations per frequency point, the preconditioner "Type 2 (SPAI)" might be the best choice in terms of total calculation time. The preconditioner "Type 3 (Diag)" is the most memory efficient choice. For the preconditioner "Type 2 (SPAI)" a tolerance can be specified for the iterative (MLFMM) solver. The default value for the tolerance is 0.15. The smaller the tolerance of the preconditioner, the better the convergence, and the higher the memory requirement. Materials The integral equation solver can use userspecified material property tables more directly than the transient solver can. For the sake of comparing these two solvers results, it may be advantageous to advise the integral equation solver to use the same material model fitted data as the transient solver does by checking the Constant fit and dispersion fit as in Time Domain box in the solver Specials dialog box. By default, the Combined Field Integral Equation formulation (CFIE) is used for PEC solids. In some cases this option can be disabled for higher accuracy for the same mesh settings. MLFMM The MLFMM uses boxes to combine the couplings. A recursive scheme is used to increase the efficiency (please see scheme below). The MLFMM speeds up the matrix vector multiplication for an iterative solver and also enhances the memory efficiency. It scales very well for large problems (geometry >> wavelength) with complexity of O(n log n). There are two options which have influence on the performance of the MLFMM. The Minimum Box size in wavelength option allows you to specify the minimum box size the MLFMM uses. A smaller box size leads to more level in the MLFMM. This might lead to lower accuracy in the simulation. The MLFMM accuracy determines the accuracy of the coupling between the boxes. A lower accuracy needs less memory but also might lead to lower accuracy in the whole simulation. Both options should be used with care. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 77 FMM MLFMM The following summarizes the input necessary for frequency domain analysis calculations using the integral equation solver: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Select an appropriate project template (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define the structure. Set the frequency range. Set the boundary conditions (optional). Define the excitation. Set the monitors (optional). Start the integral equation solver. Analyze the results (Sparameters, field patterns, result templates, etc.). 78 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Eigenmode (Resonator) Computations
The eigenmode solver calculates a finite number of modal field distributions in a closed device. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® provides two different eigenmode solvers: AKS (Advanced Krylow Subspace) and JDM (Jacoby Davidson Method). These methods work on a completely different mathematical foundation. The JDM solver can be considered as a more robust solver technology, but the AKS solver may be faster if many modes are to be calculated. Therefore we recommend the JDM solver only if a small number of modes (e.g. 15) has to be calculated. Otherwise the AKS solver should be used. Since the eigenmode analysis does not require the definition of excitation ports, this step can be omitted. The definition of monitors is also not necessary because the modes themselves contain all available information about the device. Thus, after setting up the model, you can immediately proceed to the eigenmode solver dialog box (Solve Eigenmode Solver ( )) which looks as follows: The solution of lossy eigenmode problems is a challenging task which implies that the proper consideration of losses will significantly slow down the simulation. Even if the JDM solver is able to directly solve the lossy eigenmode problem, it may sometimes be advisable (especially for very small losses) to first calculate the loss free eigenmode problem and then obtain losses and Qfactors of the device using a perturbation method in the post processing. The perturbation method requires material losses to be defined before the eigenmode simulation is started. Running the AKS solver will always calculate the loss free problem by simply ignoring the loss definition. The JDM solver can be configured to do so by activating the Use perturbation method box as shown below: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 79 In the eigenmode solver control dialog box, the most important controls are the Method (as discussed above) and the number of Modes. The typical simulation procedure is as follows: 1. Depending on the number of modes, choose the proper solver method: For the direct solution of lossy problems choose JDM. For loss free problems with a small number of modes (e.g. 15) choose JDM. For loss free problems with many modes (e.g. >5) choose AKS. 2. Enter the desired number of Modes (N). The solver will then compute the first N modes of the device. For the AKS solver, it is often advantageous to specify more modes to be calculated than you actually need, e.g. enter 20 modes to be calculated if you actually need 15. In most cases it is a good choice to calculate at least the first 10 modes of the device. Click the Start button. 3. After the solver has finished, a summary of the calculated modes will appear in the message window: 80 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview When using the AKS solver, sometimes a few of the higher modes will not be calculated with sufficient accuracy and thus be marked with “*”. However, this does not affect the accuracy of the lower modes and is the reason you should specify more modes to calculate than you actually need. The AKS eigenmode solver internally needs an estimation for the frequency of the highest mode of interest. Usually this frequency is estimated automatically and improved by refinement passes if necessary. Performing estimation refinement passes reduces the performance of the AKS eigenmode calculation. To speed up the AKS eigenmode calculation in these cases, you can manually enter a guess for the frequency of the highest mode you are looking for. The AKS eigenmode solver automatically derives such a guess from previously calculated results and prints this value in the message window. You can set this guess by opening the special settings dialog box by clicking the Specials button in the solver control dialog box. In the Guess field you should enter the proposed guess as 33.735 (GHz) in this example. If you are unsure about this setting you should specify zero for automatic estimation. Note that this setting is used only by the AKS method. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 81 This guess will now affect all subsequent calculations and should speed up the AKS solver significantly. You can access the eigenmode solver results for the Nth mode from the navigation tree: Navigation tree 2D/3D Results Modes 2D/3D Results Modes 2D/3D Results Modes 2D/3D Results Modes Mode N Mode N Mode N Mode N e h Surface Current Energy Density Type of result Electric field Magnetic field Surface current field Energy density Refer to the Resonator Tutorial for more information on postprocessing the results. The following summarizes the input necessary for eigenmode calculations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Select an appropriate project template (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define structure. Set frequency range. Set closed boundary conditions (optional). Start eigenmode solver. Analyze results (field patterns, frequencies, losses/Qfactors, result templates, etc.). 82 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Choose the Right Port
The proper definition of ports is essential for accurate Sparameter computations. In measurement setups, the device under test needs to be connected to the network analyzer by using low reflection probes or applying proper deembedding techniques. Care must be taken with the probe connection because the measured Sparameters will otherwise become inaccurate. For EM field simulations, generally the same problems exist. The port connection needs to be loss free and have very low levels of reflection. The basic problem here is to launch and extract the fields as seamlessly as possible at the ports. Fringing effects should be kept to a minimum. In general, three types of ports need to be distinguished: 1. 2. 3. Discrete edge ports Discrete face ports Waveguide ports Discrete edge ports can be seen as lumped circuit elements with an internal resistor and a current source in parallel. These ports consist of a single lumped element in the middle and two perfectly electric conducting wires connecting the port to the structure. A certain voltage / current relation is then introduced along the lumped element, and the Sparameters are calculated based on the element’s currents and voltages. Discrete face ports are very similar to the discrete edge ports described above. The major difference is that the lumped element is connected by two perfect electric conducting faces rather than wires. The advantage of this type of connection is given by its lower inductance. It is important to note that there may be a fringing effect at the transition of the structure to the discrete port. This will always be the case when the geometry of the structure’s transmission lines is different from the geometry of the discrete ports. Unfortunately, this will be the situation in most cases. Please note that discrete face ports typically introduce smaller discontinuities than discrete edge ports when connected to stripline or microstrip type structures. Despite these shortcomings, discrete ports provide a convenient and flexible way to attach ports to a given structure. The accuracy of the simulation is normally sufficient when the size of the discrete port is a tenth of a wavelength or less. The most accurate results can be obtained by using waveguide ports. These ports normally provide very low levels of reflection and distortion and, therefore, are the best choice whenever very high accuracy is required. Note that CST DESIGN STUDIO™ is capable of deembedding the port influence from the Smatrix by removing the effect of the port to structure transmission matrix from each of the ports. Refer to the CST DESIGN STUDIO™ Workflow manual for more information. Please refer to the port overview page in the online help system for more information about this topic. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 83 Antenna Computations
An antenna computation is usually performed using the transient solver and is thus quite similar to the procedure explained in the previous example. In some rare cases it may be advantageous to use the frequency domain solver. The only difference between these calculations and the procedure described below is that the frequency domain solver needs to be initiated rather than the transient solver. Refer to the frequency domain solver online help for more information. With respect to the transient analysis, the main difference between an antenna calculation and the Sparameter calculations described earlier in this document lies in the definition of the boundary conditions. Since the antenna radiates into free space, open (or absorbing) boundary conditions must be applied. Therefore simply select “open” boundaries in the Solve Boundary Conditions ( ) dialog box: Open boundary conditions require some space between the device and the boundary planes for optimum performance. Since the open boundary conditions are very accurate, only a small distance is necessary. However, if you are not sure about the amount of space needed, simply choose “open (add space)” from the boundary options. In this case, the necessary space is estimated automatically. For the calculation of the antenna farfield gain or directivity patterns (farfield distribution in spherical or Ludwig coordinate systems, left and right hand polarization, axial ratio), “farfield monitors” need to be defined before the simulation starts. Similar to the definition of the other field monitors, an arbitrary number of these monitors can be defined for various frequencies. This means that you can compute the antenna farfield for multiple frequency points from a single transient analysis. The farfield monitors are specified in the Solve Field Monitors ( ) dialog box: 84 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview After the transient analysis is complete, you can access your farfield results from the Navigation Tree Farfields folder. Typical antenna characteristics such as main beam direction, gain, efficiency, side lobe suppression, etc. are automatically calculated and displayed. Please refer to the online help tutorial Patch Antenna for more information. As mentioned above it is possible to define farfield monitors at selected frequencies, however, if you are interested in the farfield behavior over a wide frequency range you have the possibility either to define a broadband farfield monitor or to apply farfield probes. Similar to the frequency farfield monitors the broadband monitor calculates the farfield data for a wide angular range (theta, phi) and is activated by pressing the corresponding check button in the monitor dialog box: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 85 Instead of this some applications require the farfield information only at a few locations (theta, phi), so that it might be advantageous to use farfield probes Solve Probes ( ), Field = Efield (Farfield) or Hfield (Farfield): In this dialog box, you can specify the type of the farfield, the location and the orientation of the desired probe in Cartesian, spherical or Ludwig coordinate systems. Please refer to the online documentation for more information about this feature. Another very interesting functionality in combination with farfield calculations is the result templates whose basic functionality has already been demonstrated in the previous example. There are also some 1D Result templates available for automated farfield processing, e.g. the Farfield (single frq.) template. Choosing this template from the 1D Result template list (Results Template Based Postprocessing ( )) will open the following dialog box: Here you can specify which one of the previously defined farfield monitors should be processed and which farfield component and excitation ([1] corresponds to excitation at port 1) should be considered. Furthermore you need to specify the cutplane in the spherical coordinate system in order to derive a 1D curve from the farfield monitor. The result of this farfield processing template is a single result curve which can then be further processed by other result templates. 86 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview As an example, you could extract the location of the maximum by using a 0D result template (0D Value From 1D Result) and then use this value for optimizations of the main lobe direction to a certain angular location or magnitude. Please refer to the online help system for more information. The following summarizes the input necessary for antenna calculations: 1. Select an antenna project template (optional). 2. Set units (optional). 3. Set background material (optional). 4. Define structure. 5. Set frequency range. 6. Set (open) boundary conditions (optional). 7. Define excitation ports. 8. Set (farfield) monitors and/or probes. 9. Specify farfield result processing templates (optional). 10. Start transient or general purpose frequency domain solver. 11. Analyze results (input impedance, farfields, etc.). Simplifying Antenna Farfield Calculations
In many cases where only the antenna farfield pattern is of interest rather than the feeding point impedance, it is not necessary to model the actual geometry of the feeding point. However, when you want very accurate results of the antenna’s input reflection, it is essential to model the feeding point exactly as it is. In cases where you are able to use a simplified model, you can use discrete ports rather than waveguide ports (please refer to the Choose the Right Port section earlier in this chapter). If you start the analysis of a new antenna it is usually a good approach to begin with a discrete port. Since the model is easier to build, you will obtain initial Sparameter and farfield pattern results quickly. This will allow you to assess the principal operation of the antenna before increasing the accuracy (optional) by generating a detailed model of the feeding point geometry. The following pictures show feeding point models of a simple patch antenna as an example. a) Simplified model of the feeding point with a discrete edge port CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 87 b) Detailed model of the feeding point using a waveguide port In picture a), the antenna is fed by a discrete edge port which represents a current source with an internal resistance. This approach delivers accurate farfield results but may yield Sparameters which are not directly comparable to the measurements. In picture b), the antenna is fed by a coaxial line (as in the realworld structure) which gives accurate farfield patterns and Sparameters. Digital Calculations
A digital calculation is typically performed using the transient solver. Thus the overall simulation procedure is similar to the procedure described earlier in this document. The main difference between a digital calculation and a typical Sparameter calculation is the definition of the excitation signal. For Sparameter calculations the excitation signal for the transient analysis is typically defined by a Gaussian shape for which the Fourier spectrum is also given by a Gaussian shape covering the entire frequency band of interest. Therefore the time signal is determined mainly by the demands on the frequency band. In contrast, the excitation signal for a digital simulation is described in the time domain by specifying rise, hold and falltimes of a rectangular pulse. You can change the excitation signal’s shape by first selecting it in the navigation tree NT Excitation Signal default and then changing its properties (Edit Object Properties ( )) to open the following dialog box: 88 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview In the example studied above (with the time unit set to ps) the settings define a rectangular shape with a risetime of 100 ps, a holdtime of 200 ps and a falltime of 100 ps. The rise and falltimes of 100 ps correspond to a bandwidth of approximately 10 GHz. The maximum simulation time is given in the Ttotal field and is set to 1000 ps in this example. The solver automatically stops after simulating the given total time range. The parameters of the rectangular excitation function are specified in the currently selected time units. Once the rectangular excitation signal has been defined, it can be viewed by selecting it from the navigation tree NT Excitation Signals: After the default excitation signal has been changed, the modified signal is used for all subsequent transient simulations. You can also specify additional excitation signals in order to excite different ports with individual excitation signals. Refer to the online documentation for more information about this feature. In our example, the coaxial bend shows the following response to the digital excitation: CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 89 The excitation signal “i1” shows the given rise, hold and falltimes. The output signal “o2,1” has a distinctly distorted pulse shape (due to the dispersion of the coaxial bend) and a time delay because of the finite length of the transmission line. In addition to this simplified description of the excitation signal, it is also possible to set a user defined pulse shape. Refer to the online documentation for details. The following summarizes the input necessary for digital calculations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Select an appropriate project template (optional). Set units (optional). Set background material (optional). Define the structure. Set the frequency range (covering all desired harmonics). Set the boundary conditions (optional). Define the excitation ports. Set the monitors and/or probes (optional). Define the excitation signal parameters. Start the transient solver. Analyze the results (usually the time signals). There are some postprocessing macros available especially dedicated to digital simulations such as eye diagram computation (Time Signal Processing Eye Diagram) or exchange of excitation signals after the simulation (Time Signal Processing Exchange Excitation). Add Circuit Elements to External Ports
The integration of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® with other modules of CST STUDIO SUITE™ allows for a straightforward coupling of EM simulation and circuit simulation. For each CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® structure, two fundamentally different views on the model exist. The standard view is the 3D model representation which is visible by default. However, in addition, a schematic view can be activated by selecting the corresponding tab under the main view: 90 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview Once this view is activated, a schematic canvas is shown where the 3D structure is represented by a single block (MWS block) with terminals: MWS block Block selection pane The terminals are a onetoone correspondence to the 3D structure’s waveguide or discrete ports. The schematic view now allows for easy addition of external circuit elements to the terminals of the 3D structure. The connection of these arbitrary networks to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can either be realized as a standard as well as a transient EM/circuit cosimulation. Please refer to the online help system and the CST DESIGN STUDIO™ Workflow manual for more information about this topic. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 91 Chapter 4 — Finding Further Information
After carefully reading this manual, you will already have some idea of how to use CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® efficiently for your own problems. However, when you are creating your own first models, a lot of questions will arise. In this chapter we give you a short overview of the available documentation. The Quick Start Guide
The main task of the Quick Start Guide is to remind you to complete all necessary steps in order to perform a simulation successfully. Especially for new users – or for those rarely using the software – it may be helpful to have some assistance. After starting the Quick Start Guide, a dialog box opens in which you can specify the type of problem you wish to analyze: After the problem type has been selected, click Next to proceed to a list of tasks which are either necessary or optional (as indicated) in order to perform a simulation. The following picture shows an example for transient analysis: You will find that only the very first item on the list is active at the beginning. If you successfully perform the operation indicated by this entry, the next item will become active, and so on. You may, however, change any of your previous settings throughout the procedure. The Quick Start Guide may be opened as soon as CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is started. However, the Quick Start Guide will open automatically only when it has been 92 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview used during the last session. You may start the Quick Start Guide at any time by choosing Help Quick Start Guide from the menu bar. In order to access information about the Quick Start Guide itself, click the Help button. To obtain more information about a particular operation, click on the appropriate item in the Quick Start Guide. Online Documentation
The online help system is the primary source of information. You can access the help system’s overview page at any time by choosing Help Help Contents from the menu bar. The online help system includes a powerful full text search engine. In each of the dialog boxes, there is a specific Help button which directly opens the corresponding manual page. Additionally the F1 key gives some context sensitive help when a particular mode is active. For instance, by pressing the F1 key while a basic shape generation mode is active, you can get information about the definition of shapes and possible actions. When no specific information is available, pressing the F1 key will open an overview page from which you may navigate through the help system. Please refer to the CST STUDIO SUITE™ Getting Started manual to find some more detailed explanations about the usage of the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Online Documentation. Tutorials
The online help tutorials will generally be your best source of information when trying to solve a particular problem. You can select an overview page of all available tutorials by following the Tutorials link on the online help system’s start page. We recommend you browse through the list of all available tutorials and choose the one closest to your application. The fastest way to solve your particular problem is to study the most appropriate tutorial carefully, understanding the basic concepts before you start modeling your own problem. If you are already familiar with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (it usually takes a couple of days), it may be no longer necessary to study the tutorials in detail. In this case you can quickly go through the pages of the tutorial and pick out new information. Examples
The installation directory of CST STUDIO SUITE™ contains an examples subdirectory consisting of a couple of typical application examples. A quick overview of the existing examples can be obtained by following the Examples Overview link on the online help system’s start page. Each of these examples also contains a “Readme” item in the navigation tree. By doubleclicking on these items, you will obtain some information about the particular example regarding structure modeling and simulation procedure. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO 2009 – Workflow and Solver Overview ® 93 Although these examples are not explained in as much detail as the tutorials, they may nevertheless contain helpful hints which can be transferred to your particular application. Technical Support
After you have taken your first steps to solving your own applications within CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, please use the File Archive As function to create an archive containing all relevant files. This archive should then be sent to the technical support team. Even if you have successfully obtained a solution, the problem specification might still be improved in order to get even better results within shorter calculation times. The support area on our homepage (www.cst.com) also contains a lot of very useful and frequently updated information. Simple access to this area is provided by choosing Help Online Support. You only need to enter your user name and password once. Afterwards, the support area will open automatically whenever you choose this menu command. Please note that the online help system’s search function also allows searching in the online content as well. History of Changes
An overview of all new main features of the release can be obtained by selecting the Spotlight CST STUDIO SUITE™ 2009 page from the online help system (Help Help Contents). The Changes in the Service Packs Page at the same location provides in addition smaller changes released during intermediate service packs. Since there are many new features in each new version, you should browse through these lists even if you are already familiar with one of the previous releases. The history of changes between several releases of the program can be opened by selecting the History of Changes page from the online help system’s CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Getting Started book. Since there are many new features in each new version, you should browse through the list even if you are already familiar with one of the previous releases. mws_manual_08 05.08.2008 10:43 Uhr Seite 3 © C ST 2 0 0 8  C ST – CO M P U T E R S I M U L AT I O N T E C H N O LO GY A G  W W W.C ST.CO M ...
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 Magnetic Field, Dialog box, Permittivity, Dielectric, Phillip Colella, Adaptive mesh refinement

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