1.1 Algorithms 7 • Electronic commerce enables goods and services to be negotiated and ex-changed electronically. The ability to keep information such as credit card num-bers, passwords, and bank statements private is essential if electronic commerce is to be used widely. Public-key cryptography and digital signatures (covered in Chapter 31) are among the core technologies used and are based on numerical algorithms and number theory. • In manufacturing and other commercial settings, it is often important to allo-cate scarce resources in the most beneﬁcial way. An oil company may wish to know where to place its wells in order to maximize its expected proﬁt. A candidate for the presidency of the United States may want to determine where to spend money buying campaign advertising in order to maximize the chances of winning an election. An airline may wish to assign crews to ﬂights in the least expensive way possible, making sure that each ﬂight is covered and that government regulations regarding crew scheduling are met. An Internet service
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