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Biology Chapter 22 - Chapter22: Concept22. 1 Greekphiloso

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Chapter 22: Descent with Modification A Darwinian View of Life Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation. Concept 22.1 – The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views for a young Earth  inhabited by unchanged species. 1. Greek philosophers were first to suggest that life might have changed gradually over  time. 2. Aristotle proposed the Scala Naturae. – arranged in order of increasing complexity a. However Aristotle felt these levels were fixed – “perfect and permanent” 3. 1700’s many scientists interpreted the match between organism and their environment  as their “Creator had designed each species for a particular species” 4. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) developed the binomial system of naming which is still  used today. a. Unlike the Scala Naturae – Linnaeus grouped similar species into increasingly general  categories 5. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) a French paleontologist – noted that the older the  stratum, the more dissimilar its fossils were to current life-forms a. He advocated  catastrophism  – each boundary between strata represented a  catastrophe, such as a flood, that destroyed many of the species living at the time –  these were confined to local regions – which were later repopulated by species  immigrating from other areas b. Cuvier strongly disagreed with the concept of evolution 6. 1795 James Hutton, Scottish geologist, proposed that Earth’s geologic features could  be explained by gradual mechanisms still operating 7. Charles Lyell (1797-1875) – incorporated Hutton’s thinking into his principle of  uniformitarianism  – which stated that mechanisms of change are constant over time  8. Hutton and Lyell’s work led to Darwin’s questioning of Earth’s age – Darwin concluded  Earth must be much older than the commonly accepted age of a few thousand years  9.
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