3.Processes - Part Two: Process Management

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Part Two: Process Management Processes-Threads-Scheduling- Synchronization-Deadlock Mehdi Kargahi School of ECE University of Tehran Spring 2008
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Processes s Program : A passive entity s Process : An active entity (a program that is loaded into memory with program counter, resources) s Single-thread vs. multiple-thread processes
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Process States
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Process Control Block (PCB) s Process state s Program counter s CPU registers s CPU-scheduling information s Memory management information s Accounting information s I/O status information
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Process Control Block (PCB)
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Context Switch
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Process Scheduling s Context switch s Multiple register sets for faster switching in some processors (such as Sun UltraSPARC) s Job queue s Ready queue (as a linked list) s I/O devices queue (linked lists)
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Ready Queue and I/O Device Queues
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Queueing-Diagram Representation of Process Scheduling Dispatch
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Schedulers s Long-term scheduler or job scheduler s Often in a batch system, from the spooled requests s Controls the degree of multiprogramming s Is not present in all operating systems s Should prepare a good mix of I/O-bound and CPU-bound processes s Stability: process creation rate process completion rate s Short-term scheduler or CPU scheduler s High frequency (e.g., every 10 ms to 100 ms ) s Context switch overhead should be kept low
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2010 for the course COMPUTER S 001 taught by Professor Kargahi during the Spring '10 term at Amirkabir University of Technology.

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3.Processes - Part Two: Process Management

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