PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1.pdf - PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 PhysioEx Lab Report Exercise 4 Endocrine System Physiology Activity 1 Metabolism and

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Unformatted text preview: 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 PhysioEx Lab Report Exercise 4: Endocrine System Physiology Activity 1: Metabolism and Thyroid Hormone Name: Courtney Date: 11 March 2020 Session ID: session-1324c7c9-eacb-1d07-f952-9102b27da209 Pre-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 6 out of 6 questions correctly. 1 Which of the following statements about metabolism is false? You correctly answered: All of the energy from metabolism is ultimately stored in the chemical bonds of ATP. 2 Thyroxine is You correctly answered: the most important hormone for maintaining the metabolic rate and body temperature. 3 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is You correctly answered: produced in the pituitary gland. 4 An injection of TSH to an otherwise normal animal will cause which of the following? You correctly answered: goiter development. 5 Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is You correctly answered: secreted by the hypothalamus. 6 Which of the following statements is true? You correctly answered: The hypothalamus primarily secretes tropic hormones that stimulate the secretion of other hormones. Experiment Results Predict Questions 1 Predict Question 1: Make a prediction about the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of the remaining rats compared with the BMR of the normal rat you just measured. 1/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 Your answer: The hypophysectomized (Hypox) rat's BMR will be higher than the normal rat's BMR. 2 Predict Question 2: What do you think will happen after you inject thyroxine into the three rats? Your answer: The normal rat will become hyperthyroidic but will not develop a goiter. 3 Predict Question 3: What do you think will happen after you inject TSH into the three rats? Your answer: The normal rat will become hyperthyroidic and develop a goiter. 4 Predict Question 4: Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a drug that inhibits the production of thyroxine by blocking the attachment of iodine to tyrosine residues in the follicle cells of the thyroid gland (iodinated tyrosines are linked together to form thyroxine). What do you think will happen after you inject PTU into the three rats? Your answer: The normal rat will become hypothyroidic and develop a goiter. Stop & Think Questions 1 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 432 ml O2/hr. 2 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 1721 ml O2/kg/hr. 3 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 372 ml O2/hr. 2/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 4 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 92 ml O2/kg/hr. 5 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 378 ml O2/hr. 6 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 93 ml O2/kg/hr. 7 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800). The normal rat is You correctly answered: euthyroid. 8 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800). The thyroidectomized (Tx) rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 3/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 9 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800). The hypophysectomized (Hypox) rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 10 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 510 ml O2/hr. 11 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 128 ml O2/kg/hr. 12 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 474 ml O2/hr. 13 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 117 ml O2/kg/hr. 4/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 14 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 468 ml O2/hr. 15 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 115 ml O2/kg/hr. 16 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the thyroxine injection. The normal rat is You correctly answered: hyperthyroid. 17 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the thyroxine injection. The thyroidectomized (Tx) rat is You correctly answered: hyperthyroid. 18 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the thyroxine injection. The hypophysectomized (Hypox) rat is 5/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 You correctly answered: hyperthyroid. 19 Which of the rats developed a goiter after injection with thyroxine? You correctly answered: None of the rats developed a goiter with this injection. 20 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 486 ml O2/hr. 21 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 122 ml O2/kg/hr. 22 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 372 ml O2/hr. 23 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 92 ml O2/kg/hr. 24 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. 6/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 468 ml O2/hr. 25 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 115 ml O2/kg/hr. 26 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the TSH injection. The normal rat is You correctly answered: hyperthyroid. 27 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the TSH injection. The thyroidectomized (Tx) rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 28 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the TSH injection. The hypophysectomized (Hypox) rat is You correctly answered: hyperthyroid. 29 Which of the rats did not develop a goiter after injection with TSH? 7/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 Your answer: the normal rat. Correct answer: the thyroidectomized rat. 30 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 384 ml O2/hr. 31 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 96 ml O2/kg/hr. 32 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 378 ml O2/hr. 33 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 93 ml O2/kg/hr. 34 Calculate the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat using the following equation. ml O2 consumed/1 minute x 60 minutes/hour = ml O2/hour 8/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 Enter the oxygen consumption per hour. You answered: 372 ml O2/hr. 35 Now that you have calculated the oxygen consumption per hour for this rat, you can calculate the metabolic rate per kilogram of body weight with the following equation (note that you need to convert the weight data from grams to kilograms to use this equation). Metabolic rate = (ml O2/hr)/(weight in kg) = ml O2/kg/hr Enter the metabolic rate. You answered: 92 ml O2/kg/hr. 36 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the PTU injection. The normal rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 37 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the PTU injection. The thyroidectomized (Tx) rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 38 Judging from their basal metabolic rates (an indicator of thyroid function), categorize the rats as hypothyroid (low thyroid levels; BMR below 1600), euthyroid ("good," or normal, thyroid levels; BMR = 1650-1750), or hyperthyroid (high thyroid levels; BMR above 1800) after the PTU injection. The hypophysectomized (Hypox) rat is You correctly answered: hypothyroid. 39 Which of the rats developed a goiter after injection with PTU? 9/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 You correctly answered: the normal rat. Experiment Data Rat Weight (g) ml O2/min ml O2/hr BMR (ml O2/kg/hr) Palpation Injected Normal 250 7.0 420.00 1680.00 No Mass none Tx 245 6.4 384.00 1567.35 No Mass none Hypox 244 6.2 372.00 1524.59 No Mass none Normal 250 8.3 498.00 1992.00 No Mass thyroxine Tx 245 7.8 468.00 1910.20 No Mass thyroxine Hypox 244 7.8 468.00 1918.03 No Mass thyroxine Normal 250 7.9 474.00 1896.00 Mass TSH Tx 245 6.3 378.00 1542.86 No Mass TSH Hypox 244 7.8 468.00 1918.03 Mass TSH Normal 250 6.2 372.00 1488.00 Mass PTU Tx 245 6.3 378.00 1542.86 No Mass PTU Hypox 244 6.3 378.00 1549.18 No Mass PTU Post-lab Quiz Results You scored 100% by answering 7 out of 7 questions correctly. 1 How would you treat a thyroidectomized animal so that it functions like a "normal" animal? You correctly answered: Provide the animal T4 supplements. 2 As a result of the missing hormone(s) in the hypophysectomized rat, what would be an expected symptom? You correctly answered: decreased basal metabolic rate. 3 An injection of thyroxine to an otherwise normal rat will cause which of the following? You correctly answered: hyperthyroidism. 4 Why didn't any of the rats develop a goiter after thyroxine injection? You correctly answered: In all cases, TSH levels were not elevated by the thyroxine injection. 5 Why did the normal rat develop a palpable goiter with the TSH injection? You correctly answered: The TSH receptors on the thyroid gland were excessively stimulated. 10/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 6 An injection of propylthiouracil to an otherwise normal animal will cause which of the following? You correctly answered: goiter development. 7 Why did the normal rat develop a palpable goiter with the propylthiouracil injection? You correctly answered: The injection decreased the negative feedback mechanism on TSH. Review Sheet Results 1 Part 1: Determining the Basal Metabolic Rates Which rat had the fastest basal metabolic rate (BMR)? Your answer: The normal rat injected with thyroxine. 2 Why did the metabolic rates differ between the normal rat and the surgically altered rats? How well did the results compare with your prediction? Your answer: It differed because the normal rat had a working metabolic pathway while the other two did not. 3 If an animal has been thyroidectomized, what hormone(s) would be missing in its blood? Your answer: Thyroxine. 4 If an animal has been hypophysectomized, what effect would you expect to observe in the hormone levels in its body? Your answer: low levels of TSH. 5 Part 2: Determining the Effect of Thyroxine on Metabolic Rate What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the normal rat's BMR? Your answer: The rat became hyperthyroidic but did not develop a goiter. 11/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 6 What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the thyroidectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Was the dose of thyroxine in the syringe too large, too small, or just right? Your answer: The rat became hyperthyroidic but did not develop a goiter. The BMW of the Tx rat was high, just not as high as the normal rat. 7 What was the effect of thyroxine injections on the hypophysectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Was the dose of thyroxine in the syringe too large, too small, or just right? Your answer: The Hypox rat's BMR increases, but there was no goiter development. The BMW of the normal rat was higher than the Hypox rat. 8 Part 3: Determining the Effect of TSH on Metabolic Rate What was the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) injections on the normal rat's BMR? Your answer: It became hypothyroidic with a high BMR. 9 What was the effect of TSH injections on the thyroidectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Why was this effect observed? Your answer: The Tx rat had a low BMW and the TSH injections acted as negative feedback on the TRH production. 10 What was the effect of TSH injections on the hypophysectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Was the dose of TSH in the syringe too large, too small, or just right? Your answer: The Hypox rat had almost the same BMR as the normal rat but the rat developed a mass because of the overproduction of TSH. 11 Part 4: Determining the Effect of Propylthiouracil on Metabolic Rate 12/13 3/11/2020 PhysioEx Exercise 4 Activity 1 What was the effect of propylthiouracil (PTU) injections on the normal rat's BMR? Why did this rat develop a palpable goiter? Your answer: The injection decreased the negative feedback mechanism on TSH. 12 What was the effect of PTU injections on the thyroidectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Why was this effect observed? Your answer: The effect of PTU injections on the thyroidectomized rat was not visible because there was no thyroid gland to be affected. 13 What was the effect of PTU injections on the hypophysectomized rat's BMR? How does the BMR in this case compare with the normal rat's BMR? Why was this effect observed? Your answer: The eect of PTU injections on the hypophysectomized rat was not visible because the rate is missing the pituitary glands. 13/13 ...
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