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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 10 Notes Slide 2- Mitochondria uses oxygen to oxidate foodstuffs get energy in the form of high energy electrons usable energy for the cell- Plant cells chloroplasts can use light energy sunlight has photons which has energy high energy electrons are generated & turned into ATP- Mitochondria use food energy while plant cells use light energy- In both cases, we have energy electrons at very high energy when these electrons go through the complexes, the high energy is used to pump protons a stable gradient is formed ATP synthase uses this gradient, allowing protons to flow from high concentration to low concentration this creates mechanical energy that is used to synthesize ATP this type of mechanism is true for both mitochondria & chloroplasts- Chemi ATP synthesis part coupling process couples ATP synthesis part w the osmotic mechanism (diff concentrations of ions) gradient is used to make ATP energy comes from the osmotic difference to generate ATP, the gradient is necessary coupling of these 2 processes underlies the converting mechanism- Mitochondria inner membrane & chloroplasts occurs on the thylakoid membrane both of these membranes are highly folded folded to make a lot of surface space bc of this, membrane is very important for the life of the cell Slide 3- Energy from sunlight or foodstuffs energy is in the form of high-energy electrons electrons are at a high energy level these high energy electrons are used to go through a system chains of proteins (mitochondria) or 1 main complex (chloroplast) once the electrons go through the system, they become low energy electrons energy of the electrons is used to pump the protons across the membrane the gradient is used for ATP synthesis- Proton gradient in mitochondria main point is to provide energy; however, the same gradient can be used to provide active membrane transport (transporting proteins across the inner membrane) the same gradient can be used to generate movement for flagella (bacteria) flagella rotate like a propeller need energy to rotate the flagella overall, same kind of proton gradient can be used in multiple ways Slide 4- In the mitochondria inner membrane, there are many proton pumps called an electron transport chain during this entire process, they change their conformations to allow protons to be pumped out the electron comes from food the citric acid cycle gives rise to many NADH (soluble molecule w an electron) the NADH diffuses to the membrane the pumps take the electron from the NADH & goes from one pump to another, eventually, the electron goes to a complex at which it is delivered oxygen, forming water basically oxygen is at the receiving end of the high energy electron when electron goes to the oxygen, it is very stable & combines w oxygen to make water...
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- Spring '10