Lecture 11 Notes

Lecture 11 Notes - Lecture 11 11/4/10 Slide 1 Mitochondria...

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Lecture 11 11/4/10 Slide 1 - Mitochondria & chloroplasts – both use chemiosmotic coupling & electron transport – mitochondria converts energy from food while chloroplast from light - Mitochondria are very plastic (structure) & motile – some don’t move but most do & when they do, along microtubules - Inner membrane of mitochondria – oxidative phosphorylation & ATP synthase - Chloroplasts – 1 kind of plastid all begin w proplastids & in leaf cells, proplastids develop into chloroplasts bc they see light – main fxn is photosynthesis & intermediary metabolism (synthesizing building blocks for macromolecules) - Antenna & rxn center – electrons are lost from water & transported along the chain - Genomes of mitochondria & chloroplast – certain plants contribute cytoplasm & chloroplasts – plants can have different chloroplasts coming from different parents Slide 3 - More like a network than a pathway – but usually is a main path - Example of how an extracellular gets into the cell - Cases where signals come from intracellular signals as well - Diagram only shows situation where there is a receptor on the cell surface – sometimes can go directly through the membrane w/o any receptors & the molecule will find receptor in the cytosol - Extracellular signal molecules – chemical molecules that do not have to be proteins - Receptors tend to be proteins – a lot of times not proteins too trigger a cascade of rxns – a lot of these are called intracellular signaling proteins – through the fxn of these intracellular signaling proteins, they will eventually reach the effector proteins (ending of the signal pathway) – many effector proteins - some of these effector proteins are simply ion channels - Very often we have metabolic enzymes, changing the metabolism of the cell - Very often it will reach the cell nucleus & alter gene expression – turn off transcription factors & turn on inhibitors – requires nuclear activity - Cytoskeletal proteins – eventually respond to the signal by changing the shape of the cytoskeleton - Our cells, even though they have a lipid bilayer, respond very sensitively to the environment - How does the signal elicit a biological response Slide 4 - Individual cells also rely on signaling mating of yeast cells – need to change their shape to mate divide & when they get close to each other, they change their shape to exchange genetic material
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signal are peptides called mating factors, which is a signal molecule – goes into a neighboring cell & Slide 5 - Signaling is not random – very highly regulated – first step of regulation is if there is no receptor receptor can be on the cell surface – signal molecule on the surface – hydrophilic molecules which cannot get through the lipid bilayers – have to receive them on the surface intricate reactions following reception of the signal molecule - Hydrophobic molecules – can traverse the lipid molecule – don’t need receptors on the cell surface,
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2010 for the course BIOLGY BICD 110 taught by Professor Yiminzou during the Spring '10 term at UCSD.

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Lecture 11 Notes - Lecture 11 11/4/10 Slide 1 Mitochondria...

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