ultrev ch.8 - NecK ENDOCRINE GLAND secretes thyroxine,...

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NecK ENDOCRINE GLAND – secretes thyroxine, triidothyronine, and calcitonin Pyramidal lobe – normal variant extending superior to the isthmus Goiter – any enlargement of the thyroid gland Arterial supply – superior thyroid artery off external carotid, inferior thyroid artery off subclavian art Venous supply – superior and mid thyroid veins and inferior thyroid veins Thyroid Adenoma – MC benign thyroid nodule Benign follicular adenoma – thyroid neoplasm, solitary well defined mass, with HALO- hypoechoic rim Papillary carcinoma – MC common primary thyroid cancer - hypoechoic, with possible calcifications, major route of spread is lymphatics, enlarged cervical node Follicular carcinoma – encapsulated, spread via bloodstream Medullary Carcinoma – secretes hormone calcitonin, assoc. with MEN syndrome Anaplastic Carcinoma – most lethal, rapidly enlarging mass extending beyond gland Benign – significant cystic component, hyperechoic, peripheral calcification, thin complete halo Malignant – hypoechoic, irregular or poorly defined margins, calcification (papillary cancer), thick/no halo - female under 30 Diffuse thyroid disease – graves disease, goiter, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s) Hashimoto’s – MC type of thyroiditis , HYPOTHYROIDISM, painless diffuse
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ultrev ch.8 - NecK ENDOCRINE GLAND secretes thyroxine,...

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