2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Lecture

2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Lecture - Atoms, Molecules,...

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Unformatted text preview: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions Chapter 2 General Chemistry 1 Overview Neutron Old System Atomic Structure New System (Dalton) Radiation Proton Electron Alpha Beta Gamma Chemical Symbol 2 History of the Atom Nothing exists but atoms and empty space; Nothing everything else is opinion everything Democritus ~ 400 BC- suggested that all matter were 400 made up of smaller pieces called “atomos”. made An ATOM is the smallest part of an element An that still retains the properties of that element. element. 3 Early History Greek Philosophers 300-600 (Plato) BC 4 Early History Greek Philosophers 300-600 BC (Plato) Fire 5 Early History Greek Philosophers 300-600 BC (Plato) Fire Earth 6 Early History Greek Philosophers 300-600 BC Air (Plato) Fire Earth 7 Early History Greek Philosophers 300-600 BC (Plato) Fire Air Earth Water 8 Early History Aritostotle Properties using elements Fire Air Earth Water 9 Early History Aritostotle Properties using elements Fire Dry Air Earth Water 10 10 Early History Aritostotle Properties using elements Fire Dry Air Earth Cold Water 11 11 Early History Aritostotle Properties using elements Fire Dry Air Earth Moist Cold Water 12 12 Early History Aritostotle Properties using elements Fire Dry Hot Air Earth Moist Cold Water 13 13 Early History 14 14 Early History Model is in place until late 1700’s Lasted ~ 2000 years even though the Lasted theory was wrong! theory Fire Dry Hot Air Earth Moist Cold Water 15 15 History of the Atom LaVoisier (1743-1794) Father of modern chemistry Established Law of Conservation of Mass Denied the existence of phlogiston Beheaded during French Revolution Marie-Anne: Translated and Marie-Anne: illustrated books illustrated http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sts/images/images_homepage/i-lavoisier.jpg 16 16 Law of Conservation of Matter LaVoisier Matter Matter is not created or destroyed in a chemical process chemical 17 17 http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/matter-and-energy/images/h2o2.jpg Law of definite proportion Joseph Joseph Proust two or more elements combine to form a two compound in a fixed proportion by weight 18 18 Law of multiple proportion John John Dalton elements A & B can combine to form a elements compound and the ratios can be represented by small whole numbers represented 2H2 + O2 + heat 2H2O 19 19 Multiple Proportions Example Several compounds containing only sulfur (S) and Several fluorine (F) are known. Three of them have the following compositions: following 1.188 g F 1.000 g S 2.375 g F 1.000 g S 3.563 g F 1.000 g S How do these data illustrate the law? 20 20 Multiple Proportions Example Since sulfur in each case is 1.000 g, we can just Since work on the fluorine data. work Start by calculating the ratios: Raw Data Ratio 1.188 g F 2.375 g F 3.563 g F 21 21 Multiple Proportions Example Since sulfur in each case is 1.000 g, we can just Since work on the fluorine data. work Start by calculating the ratios: Raw Data Raw Ratio 1.188 g F 1 1.188/1.188 = 1 1.188/1.188 2.375 g F 3.563 g F 22 22 Multiple Proportions Example Since sulfur in each case is 1.000 g, we can just Since work on the fluorine data. work Start by calculating the ratios: Raw Data Ratio 1.188 g F 1 2.375 g F 3.563 g F 2 2.375/1.188 = 2 2.375/1.188 23 23 Multiple Proportions Example Since sulfur in each case is 1.000 g, we can just Since work on the fluorine data. work Start by calculating the ratios: Raw Data Ratio 1.188 g F 1 2.375 g F 3.563 g F 2 3 3.563/1.188 = 3 3.563/1.188 24 24 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1) All matter is made of atoms. (1) Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. indestructible. http://www.kjemi.uio.no/software/dalton/graphics/john_dalton.gif 25 25 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (2) All atoms of a given (2) element are identical in mass and properties mass http://www.kjemi.uio.no/software/dalton/graphics/john_dalton.gif 26 26 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (3) Compounds are formed by (3) a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms. atoms. 27 27 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (4) A chemical reaction is a (4) rearrangement of atoms. rearrangement 28 28 Atomic Theory J.J. Thomson Cloud of positive charge Electrons 29 29 Atomic Theory Ernest Rutherford 30 30 Evolution of the Atom Evolution Atom Dalton J. J. Thomson Rutherford 31 31 Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Mass (g) Mass Mass Relative to Proton Proton Electron e- 1- 9.110 x 10-28 1/1835 p 1+ 1.672 x 10-24 1 n 0 1.675 x 10-24 1 Proton Neutron 32 32 Subatomic Particles Nucleus diameter is ~ 10-13 cm Atom is ~ 10-8 cm Forces are repulsive and attractive 33 33 Elements Has a unique name and symbol Most symbols come from names of Most elements elements Aluminum Chlorine Al Cl Exceptions Silver Lead Ag Ag Pb Latin argentum Latin Greek protos Greek Latin plumbum 34 34 Atomic Structure The The chemistry of an atom arises from its chemistry electrons electrons Atomic number: number of protons (neutral atom protons = electrons) (neutral Mass Mass number (Nucleon number): total number of protons and neutrons of Mass Number Atomic Number Na ¬ Element symbol 35 35 Atomic Structure 19 9 F 36 36 Atomic Structure 19 9 F Atomic Number 9: Atom has 9 protons 37 37 Atomic Structure 19 9 F Atomic Number 9: Atom has 9 protons Neutral 9 electrons 38 38 Atomic Structure 19 9 F Atomic Number 9: Atom has 9 protons Neutral 9 electrons Mass Number 19: 39 39 Atomic Structure 19 9 F Atomic Number 9: Atom has 9 protons Neutral 9 electrons Mass Number 19: 9 protons 10 neutrons 40 40 Atomic Structure 19 9 F Atomic Number 9: Atom has 9 protons Neutral 9 electrons Mass Number 19: 9 protons 10 neutrons Fluorine nineteen 41 41 Atomic Structure 65 29 Cu Atomic Number 29 42 42 Atomic Structure 65 29 Cu Atomic Number 29: 29 protons 29 electrons 43 43 Atomic Structure 65 29 Cu Atomic Number 29: 29 protons 29 electrons Mass Number 65: 29 protons 36 neutrons Copper sixty five 44 44 Atomic Structure 238 94 Pu Atomic Number 94: 45 45 Atomic Structure 238 94 Pu Atomic Number 94: 94 protons 94 electrons 46 46 Atomic Structure 238 94 Pu Atomic Number 94: 94 protons 94 electrons Mass Number 238: 94 protons 144 neutrons Plutonium 238 47 47 Atomic Structure 114 48 Cd 2+ 48 48 Atomic Structure 114 48 Cd 2+ Atomic Number 48: Mass Number 114: 48 protons 46 electrons 48 protons 66 neutrons Cadmium 114 49 49 Atomic Structure 32 14 Si 4− 50 50 Atomic Structure 32 14 Si 4− Atomic Number 14: Mass Number 32: 14 protons 18 electrons 14 protons 18 neutrons Silicon 32 51 51 Isotopes Same Same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons of Hydrogen has three isotopes 1 1 H Protium 2 1 H Deuterium 3 1 H Tritium 52 52 Isotopes Mass number given after the name 235 92 Uranium-235 or U-235 131 53 I Iodine-131 or I-131 124 53 I Iodine-124 or I-124 K Potassium-40 or K-40 U 40 19 53 53 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number 41 41 Protons Neutrons Electrons 19 19 50 50 66 66 30 21 21 9 21 21 12 84 84 68 36 Al-27 Al-27 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 54 54 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 50 50 68 66 66 30 21 21 9 21 21 12 84 84 36 Al-27 Al-27 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 55 55 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 66 66 30 21 21 9 21 21 12 84 84 36 Al-27 Al-27 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 56 56 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 21 21 9 21 21 12 84 84 36 Al-27 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 57 57 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 21 21 9 21 21 12 84 84 36 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 58 58 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 21 21 12 84 84 36 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 59 59 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 84 84 36 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 60 60 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 Kr-84 Kr-84 84 84 36 36 36 48 48 36 115 47 Ag Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 61 61 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 Kr-84 Kr-84 84 84 36 36 36 48 48 36 115 47 Ag 115 115 47 47 47 68 68 47 Ca +2 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 62 62 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 Kr-84 Kr-84 84 84 36 36 36 48 48 36 115 47 Ag 115 115 47 47 47 68 68 47 Ca +2 45 45 20 20 20 25 18 45 20 20 20 10 10 28 14 Si 63 63 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 Kr-84 Kr-84 84 84 36 36 36 48 48 36 115 47 Ag 115 115 47 47 47 68 68 47 Ca +2 45 45 20 20 20 25 18 Ne-20 Ne-20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 45 20 28 14 Si 64 64 Element Mass Mass Number Number Atomic Atomic Number Number Protons Neutrons Electrons K-41 K-41 41 19 19 19 22 19 19 Sn-118 Sn-118 118 118 50 50 50 50 68 50 Zn-66 Zn-66 66 66 30 30 36 36 30 30 Al-27 27 13 13 13 13 14 14 13 13 F-21 F-21 21 9 9 12 12 9 Mg-21 Mg-21 21 21 12 12 9 12 Kr-84 Kr-84 84 84 36 36 36 48 48 36 115 47 Ag 115 115 47 47 47 68 68 47 Ca +2 45 45 20 20 20 25 18 Ne-20 Ne-20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 28 14 Si 28 14 14 14 14 14 14 45 20 65 65 Periodic Table 66 66 Periodic Table 67 67 Naming Simple Compounds Ionic Compounds Contains a metal and nonmetal Binary NaCl sodium chloride Polyatomic NaNO3 sodium nitrate Covalent Compounds Contains CS2 two or more nonmetals carbon disulfide Acids Contains HCl hydrogen & nonmetal or oxyanion hydrochloric acid 68 68 Naming Monoatomic Ions Cations Normally metal ion Name of metal followed by ion Na+ sodium ion zinc ion Zn2+ Form more than one type of ion Name of metal followed by a Roman numeral Fe2+ Fe3+ iron(II) iron(III) 69 69 Naming Monoatomic Ions Anions Nonmetal Nonmetal Use root of the name with an –ide ending N3S2O2- nitride ion sulfide ion oxide ion 70 70 Binary Ionic Formulas Ionic Ionic compounds composed of positive and negative ions and Neutral compound: Neutral Total positive charge = total negative charge Na+ ClNaCl Na Ca2+ ClCaCl2 Ca 71 71 Naming Polyatomic Ions 72 72 Polyatomic Ionic Formulas Al 3+ Al 3+ O SO4 2− 2− = Al2 O3 = Al2 ( SO4 )3 73 73 Polyatomic Ionic Formulas NH 4 + SO4 2− = (NH 4 ) 2 SO4 74 74 Common Cations and Anions 75 75 Binary Ionic Compounds (II) Mineral Total hematite, Fe2O3 negative charge 2− 2− O +O +O Total 2− = 6 negative positive charge x+ x+ = 6 positive x+ = 3 positive Fe + Fe Fe 76 76 Binary Ionic Compounds (II) Roman Roman Compounds Numerals Numerals I II II III III IV IV = = = = 1 2 3 4 Hg2(NO2)2 mercury(I) nitrite CuI2 copper(II) iodide Fe2O3 iron(III) oxide PbO2 lead(IV) oxide 77 77 Binary Ionic Compounds (II) Latin Names Fe2+ -ous ending -ic ending Fe3+ ferrous ferric Example HgS Hg22+ Cinnabar or Hg2+ Mercury(II) S2- sulfide or mercuric sulfide 78 78 Poly-Ionic Compounds NaNO3 KClO3 KClO2 Fe3(PO4)2 Know Fex+ charge on PO4 is 3- so 2 units = 6- + Fex+ + Fex+ = 6+ Fex+ = 2+ Fe 79 79 Binary Covalent Compounds Composed of two nonmetal elements More nonmetallic element listed first B, Ge, Si, C, Sb, As, P, N, H, Te, Se, S, I, Br, Cl, O, F Order is bottom to top, left to right Hydrogen after group 15 or lower Hydrogen Hydrogen before group 16 or higher Oxygen after all elements except F Second element has the suffix -ide 80 80 Greek Prefixes Atoms Prefix 1 mono2 di3 tri4 tetra5 pentaExample: P4S7 Atom 6 7 8 9 10 Prefix hexaheptaoctanonadeca- 81 81 Binary Covalent Compounds SF6 ClO2 P 4O 6 S2F10 82 82 Binary Covalent Compounds SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride ClO2 P 4O 6 S2F10 83 83 Binary Covalent Compounds SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride ClO2 Chlorine dioxide P 4O 6 S2F10 84 84 Binary Covalent Compounds SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride ClO2 Chlorine dioxide P 4O 6 Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide S2F10 85 85 Binary Covalent Compounds SF6 Sulfur hexafluoride ClO2 Chlorine dioxide P 4O 6 Tetraphosphorus hexaoxide S2F10 Disulfur decafluoride 86 86 Binary Acids Aqueous Aqueous solution of a compound containing hydrogen and nonmetal containing Formula always begins with hydrogen Prefix hydro Nonmetal stem with suffix –ic acid HCl hydro + chlor + ic acid 87 87 Polyatomic Acids Aqueous Aqueous solution of a compound containing hydrogen and an oxyanion containing Attach suffix –ic acid to nonmetal stem HNO3 NO3 = nitrate nitr + ic acid = nitric acid 88 88 Polyatomic Acids Polyatomic acid Sulfuric acid, H2SO4 Polyatomic anion Sulfate ion, SO42- Sulfurous acid, H2SO3 Sulfite ion, SO32- Formic acid, HCO2H HCO2HCO Formate ion, Formate 89 89 Summary Evolution of the Atom Subatomic Particles Elemental Symbol Recognition Introduction to the Periodic Table Naming simple compounds Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds 90 90 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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2010 for the course CHM 121 taught by Professor Scheru during the Spring '09 term at Oakton.

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