8 - Bonding

8 - Bonding - Bonding: General Concepts Chapter 8 General...

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Unformatted text preview: Bonding: General Concepts Chapter 8 General Chemistry Coulomb’s Law Repulsiv e Attractive Like charges repel and unlike charges attract Coulomb’s Law Three types of bonds a. Covalent bond electrons shared by nuclei b. Polar covalent bond electrons not shared equally a. Ionic bond metal transfers electron to nonmetal Electronegativity • Linus Pauling • Small atoms – Little shielding – High electronegativity • Larger atoms – Many electrons shield nucleus – Low electronegativity Chemical Bonds Covalent Bonds • Electronegativity Difference = 0.0 – 0.6 • Equal sharing of bonding electrons • No charge separation Polar Covalent Bonds • Electronegativity Difference = 0.7 – 1.6 • Unequal sharing of bonding electrons • Partial charge separation Ionic Bonds • Electronegativity Difference = 1.7 and above • Complete transfer of bonding electrons • Complete charge separation Electronegativity • CO 2 C = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • SO 2 • NH 3 • CH 2 F 2 • CH 2 Cl 2 Electronegativity • CO 2 C = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • SO 2 S = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • NH 3 • CH 2 F 2 • CH 2 Cl 2 Electronegativity • CO 2 C = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • SO 2 S = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • NH 3 N = 3.0 H = 2.1 0.9 PC • CH 2 F 2 • CH 2 Cl 2 Electronegativity • CO 2 C = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • SO 2 S = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • NH 3 N = 3.0 H = 2.1 0.9 PC • CH 2 F 2 C = 2.5 H = 2.1 0.4 C C = 2.5 F = 4.0 1.5 PC • CH 2 Cl 2 Electronegativity • CO 2 C = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • SO 2 S = 2.5 O = 3.5 1.0 PC • NH 3 N = 3.0 H = 2.1 0.9 PC • CH 2 F 2 C = 2.5 H = 2.1 0.4 C C = 2.5 F = 4.0 1.5 PC • CH 2 Cl 2 C = 2.5 Cl = 3.0 0.5 C Electronegativity Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments H - F Bond Polarity Molecular Polarity Molecular Polarity Ionic Compounds • Bonding between a metal and nonmetal • Neutral compound – positive charge = negative charge – CaO Ca [Ar]3s 2 O [He]2s 2 2p 4 Ca gives up 2 e- to O Ionic Compounds Ionic Size • Cations – Smaller than neutral parent • Anions – Larger than neutral parent Stability of Ionic Compounds • Lattice energy – Change in energy when gaseous ions form an ionic solid M + ( g ) + X- ( g ) MX( s ) Lattice Energy Lattice Energy Lattice Energies of Alkali Metals Halides (kJ/mol) F- Cl- Br- I- Li + 1036 853 807 757 Na + 923 787 747 704 K + 821 715 682 649 Rb + 785 689 660 630 Cs + 740 659 631 604 Lattice Energies of Salts of the OH- and O 2- Ions (kJ/mol) OH- O 2- Na + 900 2481 Mg 2+ 3006 3791 Al 3+ 5627 15,916 Covalent Bond Energies • Bond energy values used to calculate reaction energies • Breaking bonds endothermic • Forming bonds exothermic ∆ H = bonds broken + bonds formed ∆ H° from bond energies H 2 ( g ) + Br 2 ( g ) 2 HBr( g ) ∆...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2010 for the course CHM 121 taught by Professor Scheru during the Spring '09 term at Oakton.

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8 - Bonding - Bonding: General Concepts Chapter 8 General...

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