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Unformatted text preview: Nature and Nurture 17:06 Heredity and environment work in concert to influence both the ways in which you are like other people and the ways in which you are unique Genome: The complete set of genes Examining the genomes of species will provide knowledge about those species and about human evolution in the way genes function Genetic and Environmental Forces The interplay of genes and experience is exceedingly complex o Genotype: The genetic material an individual inherits o Phenotype: The observable expression of the genotype Body characteristics and behavior o Environment: Every aspect of the individual and his or her surroundings other than the genes themselves Relations that are fundamental in the development of every child o The parents genetic contribution to the childs genotype o The contribution of the childs genotype to his or her own phenotype o The contribution of the childs environment to his or her phenotype o The influence of the childs phenotype on his or her environment Parents Genotype Childs Genotype o Involves the transmission of genetic material from parent to offspring Chromosomes: Long threadlike molecules made up of two twisted strands of DNA Carries all the biochemical instruction involved in the formation and functioning of an organism Genes: The basic unit of heredity in all living things A segment of DNA that is the code for the production of one particular protein o Human heredity Each chromosome pair carries genes of the same type Sequences of DNA that are relevant to the same traits Every individual has two copies of each gene o Sex determination Sex chromosomes: Determine an individuals sex Females have two identical X chromosomes Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome It is always the father who determines the sex of offspring o Diversity and individuality Genes guarantee that we will be similar in certain ways to other people Mutation: A change in a section of DNA Most are harmful A person with the favorable mutated gene is more likely to survive long enough to produce offspring Random assortment of chromosomes in the formation of egg and sperm Crossing over: Two members of a pair of chromosomes sometimes swap sections of DNA Childs Genotype Childs Phenotype o Although every cell in your body contains copies of all the genes you received form your parents, only some of those genes are expressed o Gene expression: Developmental changes A given gene influences development and behavior only when it is turned on Regulator genes: Controls the switching on and off of genes...
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- Fall '08