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Unformatted text preview: Nature and Nurture 17:06 Heredity and environment work in concert to influence both the ways in which you are like other people and the ways in which you are unique Genome: The complete set of genes • Examining the genomes of species will provide knowledge about those species and about human evolution in the way genes function Genetic and Environmental Forces • The interplay of genes and experience is exceedingly complex o Genotype: The genetic material an individual inherits o Phenotype: The observable expression of the genotype Body characteristics and behavior o Environment: Every aspect of the individual and his or her surroundings other than the genes themselves • Relations that are fundamental in the development of every child o The parents’ genetic contribution to the child’s genotype o The contribution of the child’s genotype to his or her own phenotype o The contribution of the child’s environment to his or her phenotype o The influence of the child’s phenotype on his or her environment • Parent’s Genotype – Child’s Genotype o Involves the transmission of genetic material from parent to offspring Chromosomes: Long threadlike molecules made up of two twisted strands of DNA Carries all the biochemical instruction involved in the formation and functioning of an organism Genes: The basic unit of heredity in all living things A segment of DNA that is the code for the production of one particular protein o Human heredity Each chromosome pair carries genes of the same type Sequences of DNA that are relevant to the same traits Every individual has two copies of each gene o Sex determination Sex chromosomes: Determine an individual’s sex Females have two identical X chromosomes Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome • It is always the father who determines the sex of offspring o Diversity and individuality Genes guarantee that we will be similar in certain ways to other people Mutation: A change in a section of DNA Most are harmful A person with the favorable mutated gene is more likely to survive long enough to produce offspring Random assortment of chromosomes in the formation of egg and sperm Crossing over: Two members of a pair of chromosomes sometimes swap sections of DNA • Child’s Genotype – Child’s Phenotype o Although every cell in your body contains copies of all the genes you received form your parents, only some of those genes are expressed o Gene expression: Developmental changes A given gene influences development and behavior only when it is turned on Regulator genes: Controls the switching on and off of genes...
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- Fall '08
- Genetics, identical twins