8 - intelligence and academic achievement

8 - intelligence and academic achievement - What Is...

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What Is Intelligence? 20:37 Intelligence as a Single Trait Some researchers view intelligence as a single entity that influences all  aspects of cognitive functioning  o G: General intelligence Influences our ability to think and learn on all intellectual tasks Measures of g correlate positively with school grades and achievement test  performance  o G correlates with information-processing speed, with speed of neural  transmission, and with brain volume  o Measures of g correlate with people’s knowledge of subjects they have not  studied in school  Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Fluid intelligence: The ability to think on the spot  o Closely related to the ability to learn, the speed of information processing,  the capacity of working memory, and the ability to control attention o Related to brain size and to the amount of activation of specific brain areas  Crystallized intelligence: Factual knowledge about the world  o Reflects long-term memory for prior experiences and is closely related to  verbal ability  Tests of each type of intelligence correlate more highly with each other than  they do with tests of the other type  o The two types of intelligence have different developmental courses Crystallized intelligence increases steadily from early in life to old age Fluid intelligence peaks in early adulthood and slowly declines  thereafter  Primary mental abilities o World fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization,  numbering, rote memory, and perceptual speed Scores on various tests of a single ability tend to correlate more  strongly with each other than do scores on tests of any of the other  abilities  Intelligence as Multiple Processes
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Information-processing analyses of how people solve intelligence test items  and how they perform everyday intellectual tasks reveal that a great many  processes are involved  o Allows more precise specification of the processes involved in intelligent  behavior A Proposed Resolution Three-stratum theory of intelligence: At the top of the hierarch is g; in the  middle are eight moderately general abilities; at the bottom are many specific  processes
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Measuring Intelligence 20:37 The Contents of Intelligence Tests Intelligence is reflected in different abilities at different ages  o The items on tests developed to measure intelligence at different ages  reflect these changing aspects of intelligence  Intelligence tests have had their greatest success and widest application with  preschoolers and older children  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): Individual administered to 
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8 - intelligence and academic achievement - What Is...

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