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10 - emotional development

10 - emotional development - The Development of Emotions in...

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The Development of Emotions in Childhood 04:42 Developmentalists have a complex view of emotions; they see emotions in terms  of several components Physiological factors, including heart and breath rate, hormone levels, and the  like Subjective feelings The cognitions that may elicit or accompany subjective feelings The desire to take action Psychologists often do not agree on the relative importance of its key  components  Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion The debate about the nature and emergence of emotions in children has deep  roots o Charles Darwin argued that the facial expressions for certain basic  emotional states are innate to the species  o Discrete emotion theory: Emotions are innate, each emotion is packaged  with a specific set of bodily and facial reactions, and distinct emotions are  evident from very early in life  Other researchers argue that environmental factors play an important role in  the emergence and expression of emotions  Functionalist approach: The basic function of emotions is to promote action  toward achieving a goal in a given context o Emotional reactions are affected by social goals and the influence of  significant others  The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood Parents often read into their infant’s emotional reaction the emotion that would  seem appropriate in the immediate situation  Researchers have devised highly elaborate systems for identifying the  emotional meaning of infants’ facial expressions  o Researchers first code dozens of facial cues  o Then they analyze the combination in which these cues are present  Positive Emotions o The first clear sign of happiness that infants express is smiling
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o Social smiles: Smiles directed toward people  Frequently occur during interactions with a parent or other familiar  people and tend to elicit the adult’s delight, interest, and affection  This response usually inspires more social smiling from the infant  o Although young infants sometimes smile at interesting objects, humans  are much more likely to make them smile  o Show happiness in both social and nonsocial contexts in which they can  control a particular event  o Infants start to smile primarily at familiar people, rather than at people in  general  Tend to delight parents and motivate them to continue interacting with  the infant  Infants of this age often respond to parents’ playfulness and smiles  with excitement and joy  o Infants laugh as well as smile during a variety of activities 
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