15 - gender development

15 - gender development - Development of Gender Knowledge...

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Development of Gender Knowledge and Gender-typed  Behavior 18:09 Infants are able to detect complex regularities in perceptual information  Differences provide infants with gender cues Cannot conclude that infants understand anything about what it means to be  male or female They can tell the difference between the sexes using multiple perceptual cues Milestones in Gender Development 2 nd  year: Children begin to form gender-related expectations about the kinds of  objects and activities that are typically associated with males and females  Knowing which gender group they belong to  o Seems to emerge between the 2 nd  and 3 rd  birthday  o Behavior becomes clearly gender-differentiated  Preschool period: Children show increases in se-typed play, and start to  spend most of their playtime with same-sex peers o Avoid peers who violate gender-role norms Each gender constructs its own distinct “culture” o Girls value intimacy and cooperation in their friendships more than boys  do  More likely to play in close proximity to adults o Boys are more likely to play out of the view of adults  Gender segregation shown by children appears to be virtually universal  Mid-elementary school: Children have developed a conscious awareness of  the biological basis of gender  Children have an understanding of gender as a social category  Mid-elementary school: Children start to recognize that some children may  not want to do things that are typical for their sex  o Will argue that children should be allowed to follow their personal  preferences  o Children understood the notion of individual variations in gender-typing,  but are also aware that violating gender role norms would have social  costs  Sex segregation persists through the end of elementary school 
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Gender Comparisons 18:09 Physical Growth: Infancy Through Adolescence
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Early in life: Males and females are quite similar in size, appearance, and  abilities  During childhood: Boys and girls grow at roughly the same rate and are  essentially equal in height and weight  o With the changes in body composition that occur in early adolescence, the  gap that has existed for years in sports-related skills of boys and girls  greatly increases  Puberty: The development of the ability to reproduce  o In girls, puberty typically begins with enlargement of breasts and the  general growth spurt in height and weight, followed by the appearance of  pubic hair and then the onset of menstruation (menarche) Triggered in party by the increase in body fat that typically occurs in  adolescence o In boys, puberty generally starts with the growth of the testis, followed by 
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course PSYC 355 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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15 - gender development - Development of Gender Knowledge...

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