9 - conducting experiments

9 - conducting experiments - Selecting Research...

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Selecting Research Participants 02:01 Most research projects involve sampling research participants from a population  of interest The population is composed of all of the individuals of interests to the  researcher  Samples may be drawn from the population using probability sampling or  nonprobability sampling techniques  o Probably sampling is crucial when you are conducting scientific polls  Much research is interested in testing hypotheses about behavior o The focus of the study is the relationships between the variables being  studied and testing predictions o The participants may be found using nonprobability haphazard sampling  methods  You need to determine your sample size  Increasing your sample size increases the likelihood that your results will be  statically significant 
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Manipulating the Independent Variable 02:01 To manipulate an independent variable, you have to construct an operational  definition of the variable  You must turn a conceptual variable into a set of operations  Setting the Stage You usually have to do two things o Provide the participants with the informed consent information needed for  your study o Explain to participants why the experiment is being conducted  Sometimes, the rationale is completely truthful, although only rarely will  you want to tell participants the actual hypothesis  You have an obligation to address the deception when you debrief the  participants There are no clear-cut rules for setting the stage o There are no clear-cut rules for translating conceptual variables into  specific operations  Types of Manipulations Straightforward Manipulations o Manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus presentations  o Most memory research relies on straightforward manipulations  o You will find that most manipulations of independent variables in all areas  of research are straightforward Staged Manipulations o Sometimes, it is necessary to stage events that occur during the  experiment in order to manipulate the independent variable successfully  o Most frequently used for two reasons The researcher may be trying to create some psychological state in the  participants  May be necessary to stimulate some situation that occurs in the real  world  o Confederate: Appears to be another participant in an experiment but is  actually part of the manipulations 
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Manipulating the Independent Variable 02:01 May be useful to create a particular social situations  o Confederates may be sued in field experiments as well as laboratory  research  o Demand a great deal of ingenuity and some acting ability 
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9 - conducting experiments - Selecting Research...

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