This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: Physical Development 04:54 Body Growth Body growth tapers off from the rapid rate of the first two years o Children add 2 to 3 inches and about 5 pounds each year o Boys continue to be slightly larger than girls o Children gradually become thinner by dropping off baby fat o Posture and balance improve Individual differences in body size are more apparent Skeletal changes continue o Epiphyses: Growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bone o Skeletal age: Progress toward physical maturity Start to lose baby teeth Diseased baby teeth can affect the health of permanent teeth Brain Development Brain increases from 70% of its adult weight to 90% Changes in the Cerebral Cortex o Especially rapid growth from 3 to 6 years in frontal-lobe areas devoted to planning and organizing behavior The left cerebral hemisphere is especially active o Marked gains on tasks that depend on the frontal cortex Language skills increase Continuation of lateralization Handedness o Joint contribution of nature and nurture to brain lateralization o Children display a hand preference that gradually extends to a wider range of skills Dominant cerebral hemisphere: The greater capacity of one side of the brain Reflects dominant cerebral hemisphere to carry out skilled motor action Important abilities are generally located on the dominant side o Most children inherit a gene that biases them from right-handedness and a left-dominant cerebral hemisphere, but it is not strong enough to overcome experiences that might sway children toward a left-had preference o Handedness involves practice o Most left-handers have no developmental problems Other Advances in Brain Development o Cerebellum: A structure that aids in balance and control of body movement Contributes to dramatic gains in motor coordination Corpus collosum: Large bundle of fibers connecting the two cortical hemispheres o Supports smooth coordination of movements on both sides of the body and integration of many aspects of thinking Influences on Physical Growth and Health Heredity and Hormones o Childrens physical size and rate of growth are related to those of their parents Pituitary gland: Located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth o Growth hormone (GH): From birth on is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals o Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): Prompts the thyroid gland to release thyroxin Necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course EDHD 320 taught by Professor Parkinson during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.
- Fall '08