8 - emotional and social development in early childhood

8 - emotional and social development in early childhood -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Erikson’s Theory: Initiative versus Guilt 05:23 Initiative versus guilt: Young children have a new sense of purposefulness They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover  what they can do with the help of adults o Make strides in conscience development Play: Means through which young children learn about themselves and their  social world  Preschoolers make great strides in conscience formation, adopting both moral  and gender-role standards of their society  The negative outcome of early childhood is an overly strict conscience that  causes children to feel too much guilt because they have been threatened,  criticized, and punished excessively by adults  Early childhood is a time when children develop a confident self-image, more  effective control over their emotions, new social skills, the foundations of morality,  and a clear sense of themselves as boy or girl
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Self-Understanding 05:23 Self-concept: The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an  individual believes defines who he or she is  Foundations of Self-Concept Preschoolers’ self-concepts are very concrete o They mentioned observable characteristics Children describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes  Firmer sense of self enables children to cooperate in resolving disputes over  objects, playing games, and solving simple problems Narratives serve as a rich source of early self-knowledge and as a major  means of imbuing the self-concept with cultural values  Emergence of Self-Concept Self-esteem: The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings  associated with those judgments  o Affect emotional experiences, future behavior, and long-term psychological  adjustment Preschoolers have several self-judgments o Usually rate their own ability as extremely high and underestimate task  difficulty  High self-esteem contributes to preschooler’s initiative during a period in  which they must master many new skills o Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions by adjusting their  expectations to children’s capacities, scaffolding children’s attempts at  difficult tasks, and pointing out effort and increasing skill in children’s  behavior
Background image of page 2
Emotional Development 05:23 Understanding Emotion Children refer to causes, consequences, and behavioral signs of emotion o Children correctly judge the causes of many basic emotions o Explanations tend to emphasize external factors over internal states o Better understand how beliefs motivate behavior Preschoolers can predict what a playmate expressing a certain emotion might  do next o Realize that thinking and feeling are interconnected
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 18

8 - emotional and social development in early childhood -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online