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9 - physical and cognitive development in middle childhood

9 - physical and cognitive development in middle childhood...

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Physical Development 00:27 Body Growth Physical growth continues at the slow, regular pace of early childhood All 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent ones, with girls losing  their teeth slightly earlier than boys Health Issues Nutrition o School-aged children need a well-balanced, plentiful diet to provide energy  for learning and increased physical activity  o As long as parents encourage healthy eating, mild nutritional deficits  resulting form the child’s busy daily schedule have no impact on  development  Obesity o A greater-than-20-percent increase over average body weight, based on  an individual’s age, sex, and physical build  o Causes of Obesity Overweight children tend to have overweight parents  Heredity accounts only for a tendency to gain weight  Factors responsible include lack of knowledge about healthy diet, a  tendency to buy high-fat, low-cost foods; and family stress Feeding practices play a role  Some parents anxiously overfeed Some are overly controlling Often use food as a reward to reinforce other behaviors  Overweight children tend to be physically inactive  o Consequences of Obesity More than 80% of affected children become overweight adults 
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High blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, respiratory  abnormalities, and insulin resistance begin to appear in the early  school years  Cause of rise in cases of diabetes in children  Emotional and social problems are severe o Treating Obesity Most effective interventions are family-based Illnesses o Children experience a higher rate of illness during the first two years of  elementary school than later  Asthma: The bronchial tubes fill with mucus and contract, leading to  coughing, wheezing, and serious breathing difficulties  o Environmental factors seem necessary to spark the illness  o Chronically ill children are at risk for academic, emotional, and social  difficulties  Motor Development and Play Gross Motor Development o Running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills become more refined  Flexibility: Physically more pliable and elastic Balance: Improved balance supports athletic skills Agility: Quicker and more accurate movements are evident Force: Older children can throw and kick a ball harder and propel  themselves farther off the ground when running and jumping o More efficient information processing contributes greatly to improved  motor performance  Fine Motor Development o Improves over the school years  o Most children can print the alphabet, their first and last names, and the  numbers from 1 to 10 with reasonable clarity 
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