9 - physical and cognitive development in middle childhood

9 - physical and cognitive development in middle childhood...

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Unformatted text preview: Physical Development 00:27 Body Growth Physical growth continues at the slow, regular pace of early childhood All 20 primary teeth are lost and replaced by permanent ones, with girls losing their teeth slightly earlier than boys Health Issues Nutrition o School-aged children need a well-balanced, plentiful diet to provide energy for learning and increased physical activity o As long as parents encourage healthy eating, mild nutritional deficits resulting form the childs busy daily schedule have no impact on development Obesity o A greater-than-20-percent increase over average body weight, based on an individuals age, sex, and physical build o Causes of Obesity Overweight children tend to have overweight parents Heredity accounts only for a tendency to gain weight Factors responsible include lack of knowledge about healthy diet, a tendency to buy high-fat, low-cost foods; and family stress Feeding practices play a role Some parents anxiously overfeed Some are overly controlling Often use food as a reward to reinforce other behaviors Overweight children tend to be physically inactive o Consequences of Obesity More than 80% of affected children become overweight adults High blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, respiratory abnormalities, and insulin resistance begin to appear in the early school years Cause of rise in cases of diabetes in children Emotional and social problems are severe o Treating Obesity Most effective interventions are family-based Illnesses o Children experience a higher rate of illness during the first two years of elementary school than later Asthma: The bronchial tubes fill with mucus and contract, leading to coughing, wheezing, and serious breathing difficulties o Environmental factors seem necessary to spark the illness o Chronically ill children are at risk for academic, emotional, and social difficulties Motor Development and Play Gross Motor Development o Running, jumping, hopping, and ball skills become more refined Flexibility: Physically more pliable and elastic Balance: Improved balance supports athletic skills Agility: Quicker and more accurate movements are evident Force: Older children can throw and kick a ball harder and propel themselves farther off the ground when running and jumping o More efficient information processing contributes greatly to improved motor performance Fine Motor Development o Improves over the school years o Most children can print the alphabet, their first and last names, and the numbers from 1 to 10 with reasonable clarity...
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9 - physical and cognitive development in middle childhood...

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