10 - emotional and social development in middle childhood

10 - emotional and social development in middle childhood -...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Erikson’s Theory: Industry versus Inferiority 00:22 Children whose previous experiences have been positive enter middle childhood  prepared to redirect their energies toward realistic accomplishment Industry versus inferiority: Resolved positively when children develop a sense  of competence at useful skills and tasks Inferiority: Reflected in the pessimism of children who have little confidence in  their ability to do things well  Can develop when family life has not prepared children for school life or when  teachers and peers respond negatively 
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Self-Understanding 00:22 Self-Concept Child emphasizes competencies  o Describes personality, mentioning both positive and negative traits  The capacity to combine typical experiences and behaviors into psychological  dispositions  o Perspective talking: Inferring others’ attitudes toward the child  o Social comparisons: Judgments of one’s own appearance, abilities, and  behavior in relation to those of others  Ideal self: Used to evaluate their real self  Children look to more people for information about themselves  o Self-descriptions include frequent reference to social groups  o Self-concept is increasingly vested in feedback from close friends Development of Self-Esteem Self-esteem differentiates and adjusts to a more realistic level Combine their separate self-evaluations into a general psychological image of  themselves  Children attach greater importance to certain self-evaluations than to others  o Emphasis on appearance has major implications for young people’s  overall satisfaction with themselves Influences on Self-Esteem Culture o Girls score slightly lower than boys in overall sense of self-worth Feel less confident about heir physical appearance, academic  competence, and athletic abilities  Internalize negative cultural messages Child-Rearing Practices
Background image of page 2
Self-Understanding 00:22 o Authoritative child-rearing style makes children feel especially good about  themselves  Lets children know that they are accepted as competent and  worthwhile  o Controlling parents communicate a sense of inadequacy to children that is  linked to low self-esteem  o Encourage children to strive for worthwhile goals  Achievement fosters self-esteem and self-esteem promotes good  performance  Making Achievement-Related Attributions o Attributions: Common, everyday explanations for the causes of behavior  o Mastery-oriented attributions: Crediting success to ability  Attribute failure to factors that can be changed or controlled  o Learned helplessness: Attribute failures to ability  Conclude that external factors are responsible for success
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course EDHD 320 taught by Professor Parkinson during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

Page1 / 17

10 - emotional and social development in middle childhood -...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online