11 - physical and cognitive development in adolescence

11 - physical and cognitive development in adolescence -...

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Unformatted text preview: 17:57 Adolescence: The Transition between childhood and adulthood Puberty: A flood of biological events leading to an adult-sized body and sexual maturity Physical Development 17:57 Conceptions of Adolescence • Adolescents’ prior and current experiences affect their success in surmounting challenges • The demands and pressures of adolescence differ substantially among cultures • The more the social environment supports young people in achieving adults responsibilities, the better they fare Puberty: The Physical Transition to Adulthood • The changes of puberty are dramatic o The body of the school-aged child is transformed into that of a full-grown adult o Genetically influenced hormonal processes regulate pubertal growth • Hormonal Changes o The complex hormonal changes that underlie puberty occur gradually and are under way by age 8 or 9 o Sexual maturation is controlled by the sex hormones Both estrogen and androgyn are present in each sex but in different amounts o Adrenal androgens: Influence girls’ height spurt and stimulate growth of underarm and pubic hair • Body Growth o Growth spurt: Rapid gain in height and weight The typical girl is taller and heavier during early adolescence, but this advantage is short-lived o Body Proportions The cephalocaudal growth trend reverses Large sex differences in body proportions appear o Muscle-Fat Makeup and Other Internal Changes Boys gain fare more muscle strength than girls Physical Development 17:57 • Motor Development and Physical Activity o Puberty brings steady improvement in gross motor performance Girls’ gains are slow and gradual Boys show a dramatic spurt in strength, speed, and endurance o Among boys, athletic competence is strongly related to peer admiration and self-esteem o Sports and exercise influence cognitive and social development • Sexual Maturation o Primary sexual characteristics: The reproductive organs Secondary sexual characteristics: Visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity o Sexual Maturation for Girls Menarche: First menstruation Typically happens around age 12 ½ for North American girls, 13 for Western Europeans Breast and pubic hair growth are completed, and underarm hair appears o Sexual Maturation for Boys When the growth spurt reaches its peak, enlargement of the testes and penis is nearly complete Facial and body hair also emerge Voice change usually takes place at the peak of the male growth spurt and is often not complete until puberty is over Spermarche: First ejaculation •...
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11 - physical and cognitive development in adolescence -...

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