5 - pathways through the first three years

5 - pathways through the first three years - Individual...

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Individual Differences 02:01 Our Gendered Selves Early Sex Differences o Males are actually more vulnerable than females during the first year  Girls are physically and neurologically more advanced  o Newborn boys weight a little more and have larger hearts and lungs than  girls  Boys have less fat at birth, and this difference between the sexes  increases throughout infancy  Girls are the more precocious communicators  Girls are better at discriminating facial expressions  o Parents’ perceptions of their children are influenced by sex-role  stereotypes Parents have different expectations for boys and girls, but you need to  watch children if you want to know how they actually behave o Observations of boys and girls prove they are more similar than different  Gender Identity o Gender identity: Fundamental sense of being male or female Gender-role behaviors: Behaviors consistent with cultural norms for  how males and females should act  Sexual orientation: Preference to interact sexually with opposite-sexed  partners, same-sexed partners, or both sexes o Layers of our gendered selves begin to emerge very early  Other Gender Paths o Gender dysphoria: A child’s gender identity does not correspond to his or  her physical appearance o Intersexed individuals help to understand how someone’s gender identity  can be inconsistent with their physical appearance  o Some children are born with a male or female gender identity and remain  that way regardless of how they are reared The brain may be biased toward a gender identity by prenatal hormone  exposure  o Intersex is caused by a variety of conditions that expose fetuses to  abnormal hormone environments  The success of early reassignments varies 
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Early Personalities Temperament: Individuals’ characterize moods, ways of reacting to situations, 
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course EDHD 445 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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5 - pathways through the first three years - Individual...

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