7 - pathways through early childhood

7 - pathways through early childhood - Creating Safe and...

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Creating Safe and Healthy Environments 23:59 Unintentional Injuries Unintentional injuries claim the lives of more children in industrialized  countries than any other cause of death  Car and truck crashes account for the majority of injuries in the United States o A common mistake is transporting preschoolers without a booster seat  o Children under 12 should never ride in the front seat because the force  from some passenger-side airbags can harm small bodies Children who escape serious injuries usually experience some bumps and  bruises during the preschool years  Broad factors associated with the risk of unintentional injuries o Family factors Families differ in how vigilant they are about keeping hazards out of the  home and monitoring dangerous activities  o Characteristics of the child Frequently injured preschoolers: busy, curious, and impulsive  o Characteristics of the environment The easiest way to prevent childhood injuries is to legislate safer  behavior and child-friendly products  Environmental Pollution Many threats to health and safety are invisible  o Some children are poisoned by chemicals in herbal supplements,  imported candy, and folk remedies  o Children are especially vulnerable to these hazards because they absorb  nutrients and excrete toxic substances differently than adults  Lead poisoning: Lead causes neuronal death, interferes with neural  communication, and hinder myelin production o One of the most common pediatric health problems in industrialized  countries  Children ingest lead by eating paint chips, rubbing their hands over painted  railings, and inhabiting airborne lead when parents sand woodwork 
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Poor children and ethnic minorities usually have the highest levels because  cheaper housing tends to be closer to high traffic areas, and children who are  deficient in calcium absorb lead more readily  Primary prevention: Protecting children from exposure by following certain  guidelines  o Secondary prevention: Removing sources of lead Nutrition and Health Food Insecurity o A situation that exists when people worry about having access to safe,  nutritious food has been scarce in the past, even if they are not currently  hungry o Food insecurity in industrialized countries is associated with obesity  Misconceptions About Weight o Misunderstandings about weight control You can’t define “overweight” by children’s rank on a growth chart People aren’t overweight until their activities are limited or they are  teased about their weight You can’t control children’s weight because weight is determined by 
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