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12 - cardiovascular disease and cancer

12 - cardiovascular disease and cancer - The Cardiovascular...

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The Cardiovascular System 23:57 Cardiovascular disease (CVD): The collective term for various diseases of the  heart and blood vessels Cardiovascular system: The system that circulates blood through the body Consists of the heart and blood vessels Pulmonary circulation: The part of the circulatory system governed by the right  side of the heart The circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs Systemic circulation: The part of the circulatory system governed by the left  side of the heart o The circulation of blood between the heart and the rest of the body Venae cavae: Either of two large veins through which blood is returned to the  right atrium of the heart  Atrium: The two upper chambers of the heart in which blood collects before  passing to the ventricles Ventricle: The two lower chambers of the heart that pump blood through the  arteries to the lungs and other parts of the body  Aorta: The large artery that receives blood from the left ventricle and  distributes it to the body Systole: Contraction phase of the heart Diastole: Relaxation phase of the heart Veins: Vessels that carry blood to the heart Arteries: Vessels that carry blood away from the heart Capillaries: Very small blood vessels that serve to exchange oxygen and  nutrients between the blood and the tissues Coronary arteries: A system of arteries branching from the aorta that provides  blood to the heart muscle
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Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease 23:57 Major Risk Factors That Can Be Changed Tobacco Use o Platelets: Cell fragments in the blood that are necessary for the formation  of blood clots High Blood Pressure o Hypertension: Sustained abnormally high blood pressure o Atherosclerosis: A form of CVD in which the inner layers of artery walls are  made thick and irregular by plaque deposits Arteries become narrow, and blood supply is reduced o Prevalence High Cholesterol o Good Versus Bad Cholesterol Lipoproteins: Protein-and-lipids substances in the blood that carry fats  and cholesterol Classified according to size, density, and chemical composition Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs): A lipoprotein containing a moderate  amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol, “bad” cholesterol High-density lipoproteins (HDLs): A lipoprotein containing relatively  little cholesterol that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries and  thus protects against heart diseases “Good” cholesterol  o Recommended Blood Cholesterol Levels o Benefits of Controlling Cholesterol Physical Inactivity Obesity  o Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement of an organ secondary to an increase  in cell size Diabetes
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12 - cardiovascular disease and cancer - The Cardiovascular...

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