12 - ingestive behavior

12 - ingestive behavior - Physiological Regulatory...

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Physiological Regulatory Mechanisms 01:59 Homeostasis: The process by which the body’s substances and characteristics  (such as temperature and glucose level) are maintained at their optimal level Ingestive behavior: Eating or drinking  System variable: A variable that is controlled by a regulatory mechanism, for  example, temperature in a heating system Set point: The optimal value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism  Detector: In a regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system  variable deviates from its set point Correctional mechanism: In a regulatory process, the mechanism that is  capable of changing the value of the system variable  Negative feedback: A process whereby the effect produced by an action serves  to diminish or terminate that action A characteristic of regulatory systems Satiety mechanisms: A brain mechanism that causes cessation of hunger or  thirst, produced by adequate and available supplies of nutrients or water
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Drinking 01:59 Some Facts About Fluid Balance Intracellular fluid: The fluid contained within cells o Extracellular fluid: All body fluids outside cells Interstitial fluid, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid o Intravascular fluid: The fluid found within the blood vessels o Interstitial fluid: The fluid that bathes the cells, filing the space between the  cells of the body  Isotonic: Equal in osmotic pressure to the contents of a cell o A cell placed in an isotonic solution neither gains nor loses weight o Hypertonic: The characteristic of a solution that contains enough solute  that it will draw water out of a cell placed in it, through the process of  osmosis o Hypotonic: The characteristic of a solution that contains so little solute that  a cell placed in it will absorb water, through the process of osmosis Hypovolemia: Reduction in the volume of the intravascular fluid  Two Types of Thirst Osmometric Thirst o Osmometric thirst: Thirst produced by an increase in the osmotic pressure  of the intestinal fluid relative to the intracellular fluid, thus producing  cellular dehydration o Osmoreceptor: A neuron that detects changes in the solute concentration 
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12 - ingestive behavior - Physiological Regulatory...

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