3 - gender self-concept

3 - gender self-concept - Gender SelfConcept 20:37 Gender...

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Gender Self-Concept 20:37 Gender identity: One’s self-definition as a female or male  Transgendered individuals: Gender identity inconsistent with their  reproductive organs  There are variations in the degree to which people incorporate gender  stereotypes into their own personalities and attitudes  Gender stereotypes reflect beliefs about individuals o They are not representative of all  Gender attitudes: Beliefs about the appropriate traits, interests, behaviors,  and roles of females and males  Sexual orientation: Preference for a same- or other-gender sexual partner  Does not reflect the individual’s gender-related traits, behaviors, interest, or  roles
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Prenatal Development 20:37 Prenatal sex differentiation: The biological processes that influence the making of  our physical sex  Consists of a highly complex set of processes Stages of Prenatal Sex Differentiation Chromosomes o Normally individuals inherit 23 pairs of chromosomes from their parents One pair consists of the sex chromosomes  Genetic females have two X chromosomes and genetic males have  one X and one Y chromosome Gonadal Developmental o In XX embryos, gonadal development beings at approximately the 12 th  week after conception  Develops ovaries o The remaining process of sex differentiation is regulated by the sex  hormones  Prenatal male differentiation requires the presence of the male sex  hormones (androgens) Female sex hormones (estrogens) play a more active role in female  development than previously believed Development of Internal Reproductive Organs o Both XX and XY fetuses contain two sets of tissues  Mullerian ducts: The foundation for female structures Wolffian ducts: The basis for male internal reproductive structures  Testosterone: Necessary for the transformation of the Wolffian ducts  into the male organs Mullerian-inhibiting substance: Necessary for the degeneration of the  Mullerian ducts External Genitalia o The external structures develop from previously undifferentiated tissue  present in both XX and XY individuals 
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Prenatal Development 20:37 Brain Differentiation o Sex differences in the brain are less observable  Intersexuality The intermingling of female and male sexual characteristics  o The baby has ambiguous genitalia Turner Syndrome o Condition in which the individual has a single X chromosome rather than a  pair of sex chromosomes  Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) o An inherited disorder in which the adrenal glands of a genetic female  malfunction and produce abnormally high levels of androgens  Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome o An inherited disorder in which the body of a genetic male cannot utilize 
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course PSYC 336 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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3 - gender self-concept - Gender SelfConcept 20:37 Gender...

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