4 - infancy, childhood, and adolescence

4 - infancy, childhood, and adolescence - Children's...

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Children’s Knowledge and Beliefs about Gender 01:34 Early childhood is a time when much of the social construction of gender takes  place Distinguishing between Females and Males Infants are surrounded by abundant cues signifying gender  o Children learn to differentiate between females and males at an early age  Show more gender-typical preferences for toys and peers Gender Identity and Self-Perceptions Children develop gender identity between 2 and 3 years of age  o They can accurately label their own gender and place a picture of  themselves with other same-gender children  o They being to view their own gender more favorably  Gender Stereotypes Rudimentary knowledge about gender-typical objects and activities develops  during the second year  o Display knowledge of gender stereotypes for toys, clothing, occupations,  and activities  Preschoolers demonstrate a rudimentary awareness of gender stereotypes for  personality traits  o Knowledge of gender-typical personality traits emerges later than other  stereotype information 
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Gender-Related Activities and Interests 01:34 Physical Performance and Sports Gender differences in motor skills favoring boys become increasingly  pronounced from childhood through adolescence  o Childhood gender differences in motor skills are more likely a result of  environmental factors During puberty, hormonal changes increase muscle mass for boys and fat for  girls, giving boys an advantage in strength, size, and power  o Social pressures on girls to act more feminine intensify during  adolescence  Toys and Play Gender differences in children’s play activities and interests are more evident  than they are in other areas such as personality qualities or attitudes o Girls and boys begin to differ in their preference for certain toys and play  activities early in life  o Girls are more likely than boys to display neutral or cross-gender toy  choices and activities  Masculine activities have greater prestige than feminine ones  o A girl who plays with “boys” toys will be viewed more positively than a boy  who plays with “girls” toys  Girls and boys experience very different play environments  o Boys spend more time than girls in vigorous physical outdoor activities Rough-and-tumble play: Playful chasing, tumbling, hitting and  wrestling, often accompanied by laughter and screaming  Gender Segregation Children prefer playing with children of the same gender o Increases during childhood and is especially strong in the elementary 
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2010 for the course PSYC 336 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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4 - infancy, childhood, and adolescence - Children's...

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