8 - hypothesis testing and inferential statistics

8 - hypothesis testing and inferential statistics -...

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Probability and Inferential Statistics 23:13 Random error: Any pattern of data that might have been caused by a true  relationship between variables might instead have been caused by chance Research never “proves” a hypothesis or theory The scientific method specifies a set of procedures that scientists use to make  educated guesses about whether the data support the research hypothesis Inferential statistics: Statistics that use the sample data to draw inferences about  the true state of affairs
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Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing 23:13 It is possible to specify in a statistical sense what the observed data would look  like if the research hypothesis were not true Sampling distribution: The distribution of all the possible values of a statistic  Each statistic has an associated sampling distribution  o Binomial distribution: The sampling distribution for events that have two  equally likely possibilities o There is a sampling distribution for the mean, a sampling distribution for  the standard deviation, a sampling distribution for the correlation  coefficient, etc.  For most statistics, there are a series of different sampling distributions, each of  which is associated with a different sample size (N) The Null Hypothesis Begin by assuming that the observed data do not differ from what would be  expected on the basis of chance, and the sampling distribution of the statistic  is used to indicate what is expected to happen by chance o Null hypothesis (Ho): The assumption that the observed data reflect only  what would be expected under the sampling distribution 
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