lecture10 - Astronomy Picture of the Day Another view of...

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Astronomy Picture of the Day Another view of Comet Hartley
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Gravitation and Planetary Orbits Ancient geocentric models The Copernican revolution Kepler’s laws of planetary motion Newton’s laws of gravitation The speeds of planetary orbits
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The Planets
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Mars’s path across the sky
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Mars’s path across the sky
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Planetary motions Earth takes 1 year to orbit the sun; Mars takes 1.88 years How does Mars appear to move relative to stars on the celestial sphere? Sun Earth Mars
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion As Earth and Mars orbit the sun, how does Mars appear to move along the celestial sphere?
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ ˒ Retrograde motion
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Retrograde motion
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Ancient models of the universe Most ancient observers like Aristotle (384-322 BC) thought that the earth was at the center of the universe This is called a geocentric model Ptolemy: Greek astronomer around 140 AD Ptolemy’s geocentric model was the dominant model of the universe used in European civilization for almost 1500 years Aristarchus of Samos (310-230 BC) had proposed a heliocentric model, but his work was largely rejected
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The geocentric model In the geocentric model, planets moved on epicycles around a larger orbit called a deferent
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The geocentric model Pros Cons Satisfed the philosophically motivated desires to have the Earth at the center oF the Universe, and to have planets move on circular paths Very complicated! Required epicycles on top oF
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lecture10 - Astronomy Picture of the Day Another view of...

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