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lecture12+for+students+6+per+page - Outline Motivation What...

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11/9/10 1 MOTIVATION & EMOTION Chapter 11 Outline Motivation What is motivation? Theories of Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Emotion Discrete Emotions Theory Cognitive Theories of Emotion Positive Psychology: Happiness Motivation Motivation Why do we do what we do? Sometimes we do things that are NOT rewarding. People can behave the same, but for different reasons. What is Motivation? Intervening variable Describes relationship between stimuli and behavior. Motive = something with the power to change a behavior. Example: Hunger Explains differences in behavior across time/situation. Sources of Motivation Biological Factors Food, water, etc., Emotional Factors Fear, anger, love, etc., Cognitive Factors Perceptions, beliefs, and expectations Social Factors Influence of family, friends, society, etc.,
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11/9/10 2 Theories of Motivation Drive Reduction Theory Motivation drives us to satisfy needs. Optimal Arousal Theory Motivated to maintain preferred arousal level. Incentive Theory Drawn towards positive incentives, away from negative incentives. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Drive Reduction Theory A need produces a drive which results in behavior The body is constantly trying to return to homeostasis (equilibrium) Drive Reduction Theory Drive Reduction Theory Physiological (or social) need creates arousal This drives organism to satisfy need Which returns the organism to homeostasis food deprivation (need creating arousal) hunger (drive) seeking food & eating (behavior) drive reduction (homeostasis) What can’t this explain? Optimal Arousal Theory Arousal Theory Aim of motivation is to maintain an optimal level of arousal The optimal level can vary from person to person Optimal Arousal Theory: Yerkes-Dodson Law Inverted U-shaped relationship between performance and affect (or arousal) Relates to task complexity Incentive Theory (or Theories) Motivated by positive goals (e.g. the pleasure of completing a painting or a paper) Intrinsic motivation: motivated by internal goals (e.g. I
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