Lecture17 - Chem 1P Lecture 17: Aqueous solutions Chang...

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Aqueous solutions Chem 1P Lecture 17:
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water: universal solvent Solutions in which water is the dissolving medium are called aqueous solutions . water: solvent dissolved compound: solute Chang Section 4.1
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Properties of water molecule Oxygen and hydrogen share electrons: covalent bond. But…. On average, binding electrons spend more time on oxygen. Water molecule is polar: oxygen is more negative and hydrogen more positive. Most properties of water follow from its polarity Chang Section 4.1
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Ionic solutes NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O(l) Dissolving ‘forces’ of water are stronger than binding ‘forces’ in NaCl, leading to dissolved ions Chang Section 4.1
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Nonionic solutes 1. If compound is polar, like water, solubility is high in water: C 10 H 22 (l) H 2 O(l) C 10 H 22 (l) Decane: C 2 H 5 OH (l) H 2 O(l) C 2 H 5 OH (aq) Ethanol: 2. If compound is nonpolar, like fat, solubility is low in water: Chang Section 4.1
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Strong and weak electrolytes Ionic aqueous solutions can conduct electrical current. Solutions with high concentration of dissolved ions: strong electrolytes Solutions with low concentration of dissolved ions: weak electrolytes Chang Section 4.1
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Strong electrolytes: Soluble salts Salts that completely ionize in water are strong electrolytes: NH 4 NO 3 (s) NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O(l) NH 4 + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) H 2 O(l) Chang Section 4.1
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Strong electrolytes: Strong acids HCl (g) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O(l) HClO 3 (s) H + (aq) + ClO 3 - (aq) H 2 O(l) When dissolved in water, a strong acid almost completely dissolves into H
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2010 for the course CHEM Chem 1P taught by Professor Ericpotma during the Winter '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Lecture17 - Chem 1P Lecture 17: Aqueous solutions Chang...

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