CHAPTER_ELEVEN - CHAPTER 11 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive...

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CHAPTER 11 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive tract (also called the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract) is made up of several digestive organs. The organs connect to form a continuous passageway from the mouth to the anus. With the help of accessory organs, the digestive tract prepares ingested food for use by the body cells through physical and chemical digestion and eliminates the solid waste products from the body. ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT ORGAN DEFINITION mouth opening through which food passes into the body; breaks food into small particles by mastication (chewing) and mixing with saliva tongue consists mostly of skeletal muscle; attaches to the posterior region of the mouth. It provides movement of food for mastication, directs food to the pharynx for swallowing, and is a major organ for taste and speech. palate separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavity soft palate posterior portion, not supported by bone hard palate anterior portion, supported by bone uvula soft V-shaped mass that extends from the soft palate. Directs food into the throat. pharynx, throat performs the swallowing action that passes food from the mouth into the esophagus esophagus 10-inch tube that extends from the pharynx to the stomach stomach J-shaped sac that mixes and stores food. It secretes chemicals for digestion and hormones for local communication control. cardia area around the opening of the esophagus fundus uppermost domed portion of the stomach body central portion of the stomach pylorus lower part of the stomach that connects to the small intestine antrum portion of the pylorus that connects to the 1
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body of the stomach pyloric sphincter ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum small intestine 20-foot canal extending from the pyloric sphincter to the large intestine duodenum first 10-20 inches of the small intestine jejunum second portion of the small intestine, approximately 8 feet long ileum third portion of the small intestine, approximately 11 feet long, which connects with the large intestine large intestine canal that is approximately 5 feet long and extends from the ileum to the anus cecum blind U-shaped pouch that is the first portion of the large intestine colon next portion of the large intestine. The colon is divided into four parts: ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. rectum remaining portion of the large intestine, approximately 8-10 inches long, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus anus sphincter muscle (ring-like band of muscle fiber that keeps an opening tight) at the end of the digestive tract Accessory Organs salivary glands produce saliva, which flows into the mouth liver produces bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats. The liver performs many other functions concerned with digestion and metabolism bile ducts passageways that carry bile: the hepatic duct is a passageway for bile from the liver, and the cystic duct carries bile from the gallbladder. They join to form the common
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