CHAPTER_FOURTEEN

CHAPTER_FOURTEEN - CHAPTER 14 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM The...

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CHAPTER 14 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM The musculoskeletal system is made up of bones, muscles, and joints. The body contains 206 bones and more than 600 muscles. Joints are any place in the body at which two or more bones meet. The functions of the skeletal system are to provide a framework for the body, protect the soft body parts such as the brain, store calcium, and produce blood cells. The functions of the muscular system are movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production. BONE STRUCTURE STRUCTURE DEFINITION periosteum outermost layer of the bone, made up of fibrous tissue compact bone dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum cancellous (spongy) bone contains little spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone endosteum membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone diaphysis shaft of the long bones epiphysis (pl. - epiphyses) ends of the long bone bone marrow material found in the cavities of bones red marrow thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of the long bones. Location of blood cell formation yellow marrow soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones 1
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SKELETAL BONES BONE DEFINITION maxilla upper jawbones mandible lower jawbone vertebral column made up of bones called vertebrae (pl.) or vertebra (sing.) through which the spinal cord runs. The vertebral column protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and provides a point of attachment for ribs and muscles cervical vertebra (C1 to C7) first set of seven bones, forming the neck thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12) second set of 12 vertebrae; they articulate with the 12 pairs of ribs to form the outward curve of the spine lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5) third set of five larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of the spine sacrum next five vertebrae, which fuse together to form a triangular bone positioned between the two hip bones coccyx four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone lamina (pl. – laminae) part of the vertebral arch clavicle collarbone scapula shoulder blade acromion extension of the scapula, which forms the high point of the shoulder sternum breastbone xiphoid process lower portion of the sternum humerus upper arm bone ulna and radius lower arm bones carpal bones wrist bones metacarpal bones hand bones phalanges (sing. – phalanx) finger and toe bones pelvic bone, hip bone made up of three bones fused together ischium lower, rear portion on which one sits ilium upper, wing-shaped part on each side pubis anterior portion of the pelvic bone acetabulum large socket in the pelvic bone for the head of the femur femur upper leg bone tibia and fibula lower leg bones patella kneecap tarsal bones ankle bones calcaneus heel bone metatarsal bones foot bones 2
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JOINTS Joints, also called articulations, hold our bones together and make movement possible (in most joints). JOINT
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2010 for the course HSC 2531 taught by Professor Chancey during the Spring '10 term at Santa Fe College.

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CHAPTER_FOURTEEN - CHAPTER 14 MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM The...

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