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CHAPTER 16 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM The function of the endocrine system is to regulate body activities through the use of chemical messengers called hormones , which when released into the bloodstream influence metabolic activities, growth, and development. The nervous system also regulates body activities but does so through electrical impulses and glandular secretions. Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands that make up the endocrine system go directly into the bloodstream and are transported throughout the body. They are referred to as ductless glands because they do not have ducts to carry their secretions. In contrast, the exocrine or duct glands have ducts that carry their secretions from the producing gland to other parts of the body. ENDOCRINE GLANDS GLAND DEFINITION pituitary gland, hypophysis cerebri approximately the size of a pea and is located at the base of the brain. The pituitary is divided into two lobes. anterior lobe or adenohypophysis produces and secretes the following hormones: growth hormone (GH) regulates the growth of the body adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid gland gonadotropic hormones affect the male and female reproductive systems follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes prolactin or lactogenic hormone (PRL) promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant posterior lobe or neurohypopysis stores and releases the following hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum hypothalamus located near the pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus secretes “releasing” hormone that functions to stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary gland hormones. 1
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thyroid gland largest endocrine gland. It is located in the neck below the larynx and comprises bilateral lobes connected by an isthmus. The thyroid gland secretes the hormones triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), which require iodine for their production. Thyroxine is necessary for body cell metabolism. parathyroid glands four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Parathormone (PTH), the hormone produced by the glands, helps to maintain the level of calcium in the blood. islets of Langerhans
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2010 for the course HSC 2531 taught by Professor Chancey during the Spring '10 term at Santa Fe College.

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