CHAPTER_TEN - CHAPTER 10 CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC...

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CHAPTER 10 CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEMS The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The function of the system is to nourish the body by transporting nutrients and oxygen to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. STRUCTURES OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM STRUCTURE DEFINITION heart muscular organ – the size of a closed fist – located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs. The pumping action of the heart circulates blood throughout the body. The heart consists of two upper chambers – the right atrium and the left atrium – and two lower chambers – the right ventricle and the left ventricle . The valves of the heart keep the blood flowing in one direction. The cardiac septum separates the right and left sides of the heart. tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle bicuspid valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle ( mitral valve ) semilunar valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta three layers of the heart pericardium two-layer sac ( pericardial sac ) covering the heart. (Pericardial fluid allows the layers to move without friction.) visceral pericardium lies closest to the myocardium epicardium (parietal pericardium) lines the pericardial sac myocardium middle, thick, muscular layer endocardium inner lining of the heart blood vessels tube-like structures that carry blood throughout the body 1
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blood vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary artery, carry oxygen and other nutrients from the heart to the body cells. The pulmonary artery, in contrast, carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs. arterioles smallest arteries aorta largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen veins blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. All veins, with the exception of the pulmonary veins, carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart venules smallest veins venae cavae largest veins in the body. The inferior vena cava carries blood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm, and the superior vena cava returns the blood to the heart from the upper part of the body capillaries microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules. Materials are passed between the blood and tissue through the capillary walls. blood composed of plasma and formed elements such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes (platelets) plasma liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended cells (formed elements) erythrocytes red blood cells that carry oxygen leukocytes white blood cells that fight infection platelets (thrombocytes) one of the formed elements in the blood. Responsible for aiding in the clotting
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CHAPTER_TEN - CHAPTER 10 CARDIOVASCULAR AND LYMPHATIC...

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