1 Chapter 11 – Understanding Randomness Throughout chapters 11 & 12 we will be discussing random data. Randomness is a tool for being “fair”. Randomness is used to overcome natural preferences and biases. The use of statistics in the “real world’ usually involves collecting some sample data, organizing and analyzing that data, and using the sample results to draw a conclusion or make a statement about the underlying population (using sample statistics to estimate a population parameter). Estimating a parameter with a statistic is only reliable if the sample data is representative of the corresponding population. Random sampling is the technique used to get representative sample data. Example 1: Shuffling a deck of cards is used to randomize the deck. For riffle shuffling, it is commonly believed that it takes 7 times for the deck to be fully shuffled. If the deck is properly shuffled (completely randomized), which suit is most likely to appear once the first card is turned up? So, for a deck of cards, randomness is another way of saying that each card has an equally likely chance of
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