Lecture05_10 - Physics19 GreatIdeasofPhysics Lecture5:

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Physics 19 Great Ideas of Physics Lecture 5: Newton’s Mechanical Universe
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Dynamics Kepler and Galileo succeeded in finding  ways to describe  nature using mathematics They did not explain, only describe, how things  move on Earth and in the heavens The next breakthrough would move beyond  description to reveal the causes of motion,  and in the process uncover laws governing  the entire universe
Background image of page 2
Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727) Born the same year Galileo died  to a poor farming family Newton’s father was illiterate Father died 3 months before birth Newton was sickly and not expected  to survive Entered university at Cambridge  in 1661 as a law student Worked as a servant for other  students to pay tuition Study of math triggered by interest in  astrology Graduated without distinction in  1665
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Newton’s  Annus Mirablis Returned home before  beginning MA degree Plague forced universities  to close in 1666 While stranded in his  family farmhouse, began  experimentation on optics,  astonomy, physics and  revolutionary advances in  math
Background image of page 4
Calculus During this time, Newton  invented what is today  called calculus “Derivatives”: a fast method  for finding tangents to  curves – which we saw  makes a direct connection  between position and speed “Integrals”: the inverse of a  derivative, and a way to  calculate the area under a  curve
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Principia Newton became a Professor  at Cambridge (the chair today  held by Stephen Hawking) He published little of his work,  for many years Bitter disputes with other scientists  made him reluctant Prompted by an inquiry from  Edmund Halley, he published  his masterpiece in 1687,  arguably the greatest single  work in the history of science!
Background image of page 6
Newton’s First Law – Inertia Every material body  persists in its state of rest  or uniform, unaccelerated  motion in a straight line, if  and only if it is not acted  upon by a net (unbalanced  external) force “Inertia” is the name for the  property of objects that  resists changes in their  motion
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
What the First Law Means The First Law can be looked at in two ways: If an object is not accelerating (or decelerating)  it must have no  net  external forces acting on it It may have several forces acting on it which add up  to a zero net force. If an object is  changing its motion by  accelerating or decelerating then it must  have a  net  external force acting on it
Background image of page 8
Newton vs. Aristotle According to Aristotle (and most  freshman physics students…), a  force is required for an object to  continue moving at a constant  velocity The “normal” behavior of a material  object is to come to rest According to Newton, no force is 
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course PHYS Physics 19 taught by Professor Davidcasper during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

Page1 / 38

Lecture05_10 - Physics19 GreatIdeasofPhysics Lecture5:

This preview shows document pages 1 - 10. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online