Lecture15_10 - Physics19 GreatIdeasofPhysics...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Physics 19 Great Ideas of Physics Lecture 15: From Special to General Relativity
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What We’ve Lost Relativity has destroyed the concepts of “absolute”  space and “absolute” time We now view the world as 4-dimensional The idea of events at different places being  simultaneous is not physically meaningful Depends on the motion of the observer, but causality is  preserved The intuitive ideas of Galilean relativity are  incorrect
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What We’ve Gained The principle that all  physical laws are the same in  all inertial reference frames is a major step forward Space and time are now related to each other in a  very symmetrical way Conservation of mass and conservation of energy  have become the same law Conservation of momentum and conservation of  energy have become the same law
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General Relativity “Special” relativity is special because it only  applies to inertial (non-accelerating) frames  of reference “General” relativity is general, because it  applies to both inertial and accelerated  frames Essentially a new theory of gravity, modifying  Newton
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Inertial and Gravitational Mass Einstein began by observing what had until  then been taken for granted: inertial and  gravitational masses are the same Inertial mass: the mass appearing in F=ma Gravitational mass: the mass appearing in  Fg=mg (or Fg = GMm/r2) Starting from this equivalence principle, he  explored why they should be the same, and 
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Einstein’s Equivalence Principle Einstein took this as  justification for his  “equivalence” principle: No experiment can  distinguish between  being accelerated and  being in the gravitational field of a massive body Therefore they are  Acceleration g Gravitation
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Gravity as Curvature of  According to General  Relativity, the presence  of matter causes a  curvature of space-time This curvature in turn  affects the movement of  nearby bodies
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2010 for the course PHYS Physics 19 taught by Professor Davidcasper during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Lecture15_10 - Physics19 GreatIdeasofPhysics...

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