Animal Notes

Animal Notes - Animal Notes(below is a summary of the major...

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Animal Notes (below is a summary of the major animal groups from lecture) By Priyashiela Singh: There are four major tissue types in metazoans: Epithelial tissue- covers external and internal structures Connective tissue- serve binding and support functions Muscular tissue- groups of cells that are specialized for forceful movement Nervous tissue- serves in the reception of stimuli and conduction of impulses The blastula stage of development is found in all animals (more derived animals have the diploblastic stage (Cnidarians, Ctenophores), and even more derived animals have the triploblastic stage (Bilaterians Outline of Major Animal Phyla: Phylum: Porifera 1. Simplest groups of metazoans 2. one cell layer 3. multicellular heterotrophs 4. no symmetry 5. choanocytes (the cell that pumps water into sponge and filter feeds, single cell, has a flagellum surrounded by a collar (this is where food gets stuck it’s made of microfibrils)) 6. spicules (tiny skeletal elements, inorganic)-Three groups are sponges are characterized by this 7. Ancient fossil record (fossilize very well, record goes back 590 M.Y.A.) 8. Water Movement in a Sponge Water enters small pores goes through the incurrent canals then to choanocytes chambers choanocytes capture food by pumping the water then to the excurrent canal- then water is expelled through the osculum 9. Reproduction: mostly asexual reproduction but sponges can be dioecious or monoecious 10. Symbiosis with many organisms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, green algae)-Marine sponges are actually places to prospect for new bio-active compounds but the organisms do not grow well outside of the sponge) Sponge Groups: a. Glass Sponges-spicules are made of silica, live in extremely deep water (because they can’t handle areas where the current is moving fast) b. Demosponges-spicules are made of silica and also have tough fibers called sponging (90% of all species of sponges, all freshwater species), these are the bath sponges (cosmetic sponges) c. Calcareous Sponges-spicules made of calcium carbonate Phylum: Ctenophora (comb jellies) : Live in the open ocean (~100 species) Predators Move by beating cilia Synapomorphy is the presence of structures called ctenes Phylum: Cnidaria Diploblastic
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Have radial symmetry Have muscle and nerve cells Have cells called cnidocytes (have structures called nematocysts that responsible for stinging, these are located in the tentacles and can shoot only once) Have light sensitive organs Have a life cycle that consists of the polyp (stationary, asexually reproduces through budding) and medusa (swimming) life stages Cnidarian Groups : 1. Anthozoans: anemones, corals (6,000 species)-These are polyps only (solitary or colonial), some have a symbiosis with clown fish 2. Hydrozoans: colonial stinging polyp (Portuguese man-o-war) (3,000 species)-Produce both the polyp and medusa stages 3. Scyphozoa: Jellies (200 species)-Primarily medusae, never colonial 4. Cubozoa: Box-jellies (20 species)-The polyp stage is reduced but present, these can be deadly
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Animal Notes - Animal Notes(below is a summary of the major...

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