Chapter+Nine+Relationships+and+Social+Development+Lectures+13+and+14+for+Students

Chapter+Nine+Relationships+and+Social+Development+Lectures+13+and+14+for+Students

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1 Relationships and Social Development November 16 and 18, 2010 Infant Development, Fall 2010 Chapter 9 Attachment Attachment • A strong emotional bond that forms between infants and caregivers in the second half of the first year of life • Importance of attachment • Has an apparent biological basis • Relates to the family and cultural context as well
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2 Theories of Attachment ___________________: Attachment has roots in instinctual infant responses important for survival and protection ___________________: The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period of development Konrad Lorenz Theories of Attachment ____________________________: Attachment is linked to gratification of innate drives ____________________________: Traditionally, the primary drive of hunger is reduced by food by the individual who does the feeding • Investigated using animal research Animal Research on Attachment Studies with rhesus monkeys: _______________ Harlow & Zimmerman (1959)
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3 Animal Research on Attachment • Monkeys reared in isolation Early issues: When placed with others, social disturbances results Later issues: No sexual pursuits; ignored, rejected, attacked, or killed offspring • Consider monkeys who are “raised” by peers Theories of Attachment _______________________________________ merged the perspectives from psychoanalytic theory and ethology: Attachment to the mother ensures adequate care and survival • Infant signals and parent responses • Leads to survival and exploration of the environment • Activated when the infant is in unfamiliar situations Developmental Trajectory _____________________: Birth to six weeks • Use innate signaling abilities (crying, grasping) to bring adults into close proximity _____________________: Any adult will suffice
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4 Developmental Trajectory ___________________________: Six weeks to six to eight months ___________________________: Distinguishes between familiar and unfamiliar individuals, but attachment is not specific • Smiles and babbles more than at earlier ages and is soothed more easily by familiar people Developmental Trajectory ___________________________: Six to eight months to eighteen to twenty-four months • Infant is attached to familiar caregivers: Acts deliberately to maintain proximity and seeks contact • Uses the parent as a __________ for exploration Separation anxiety when caregiver is absent Developmental Trajectory ______________________: From eighteen to twenty-four months on ______________________: Toddler recognizes that others have feelings and goals, which leads
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Chapter+Nine+Relationships+and+Social+Development+Lectures+13+and+14+for+Students

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