292 Am J Psychiatry 166:3, March 2009 Images in Psychiatry ajp.psychiatryonline.org Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, 1746–1828 G oya was a radical artist who declared, “There are no rules in painting.” In canvases of prisons and asylums, highway assaults and murder, even cannibalism, he depicted extreme and violent human behavior. Goya was one of the first political artists, and he influenced the later work of David and Delacroix. In his haunting, patriotic masterpiece The Third of May he portrayed the imminent execution of a Spanish partisan by the French invaders. Along with Rembrandt, Goya elevated the art of etching to a new height. Goya combined direct etching with aquatint, which enhanced the dramatic possibilities of the medium. In Los Capri-chos, using this new method, he parodied contemporary politics, social conventions, sexual mores, and religious hypocrisy (1). Goya was fascinated by the nightmare, as his etching The dream/ sleep of reason brings forth monsters (reproduced here) exempli-
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