Novaco+P102+2010+lecture+8 - 11/22/2010 Childhood Disorders...

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11/22/2010 1 Childhood Disorders Raymond W. Novaco University of California, Irvine Abnormal Behavior P102, Fall 2010 Childhood Disorders c usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence Types: mental retardation learning disorders communication disorders pervasive developmental disorders attention-deficit and disruptive behavior disorders feeding and eating disorders tic orders elimination disorders “other” disorders (e.g. separation anxiety, mutism) Mental Retardation c defined by performance on standardized intelligence tests • significant sub-average general intellectual functioning • limitations in adaptive functioning in at least two skill areas: e.g. communication, self-care, social skills, use of resources, self-direction, academic, work, leisure, health, and safety • onset before age 18 Degree of Severity Categories: IQ level Mild (previously called “educable”) 85% of cases 50-55 to ~70 Moderate (previously called “trainable”) • 10% of cases 35-40 to 50-55 Severe 3-4% of cases 20-25 to 35-40 Profound 1-2% of cases below 20-25 Mental Retardation c general population prevalence rate is about 1% Predisposing Factors: Heredity • gene abnormalities/chromosomal aberrations (e.g. Downs) Pregnancy and Perinatal Problems fetal malnutrition, prematurity, hypoxia, viral, trauma General Medical Conditions Occurring in Infancy/Childhood • infections, traumas, poisoning (e.g. lead) Environmental Influences Other than Medical Conditions • deprivation of nurturance, low social/linguistic stimulation c “Borderline” Intellectual Functioning: IQ 71-84 Intelligence Testing Items Similar to the Performance Items of Wechsler Intelligence Test
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11/22/2010 2 Intervention People with mental retardation who are capable of functioning in the community have the right to receive less-restrictive care than is provided in large institutions. People with mental retardation (MR) stand a high risk of developing other psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, as well as behavioral problems. People with MR often need psychological help dealing with adjustment to life in the community. Many have difficulty making friends and become socially isolated. Epidemiological Research: Studies on 3 Continents Australia : (JIDR, 1994 ) N = 2,412 -- clinical teams survey 11% exhibit aggressive behaviour; 35% in institutions UK : Harris (JIDR, 1993 ) N = 1,362 -- service providers survey 17.6% exhibit aggressive behaviour; 38% in institutions Smith, Branford, Collacott, Cooper, & McGrother (BJP, 1996 ) N = 2,277 -- home interviews with care providers 21% physically aggressive; 40% in institutions US : Hill & Bruininks (AJMD, 1984 ) N = 2,491 -- direct care staff inteviews 26.6% injurious behaviour to others; 36.9% in institutions Aggressive Behaviour Profiles 296 adult men and women, mild and moderate ID receiving service 3 agencies, Quebec
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2010 for the course PSYCH SY BEH 102 taught by Professor Raymondw.novaco during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

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Novaco+P102+2010+lecture+8 - 11/22/2010 Childhood Disorders...

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