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Unformatted text preview: Images in Psychiatry 898 ajp.psychiatryonline.org Am J Psychiatry 167:8, August 2010 The focus on rewards led to the second principlethe minimi- zation of exciting the fear of patients and, particularly, the use of force. The Description advertised that neither chains nor corpo- ral punishments are tolerated, on any pretext, in this establish- ment. The use of fear and coercion was common in many of the other institutions at the time, as can be seen by the example of George III, who was starved, beaten, and intimidated during his bouts of mania (3). The third principle regarded preserving the comfort of the patients. The view that the insane retained their essential humanity meant that they were as sensitive to their en- vironment as were the sane. The early 19th century was a period of major asylum reform in England, and many historians have ascribed to the York Retreat, and particularly the Description, a crucial role in these reforms (4). Within 2 years after its publication, the nearby York Asylum had been made over in the Retreats image. Samuel Tuke consult- ed on the design of asylums in England and in America, where Quakers were prominent in the foundation of about half of the...
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