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new quick study card - Earth Systems Kinetic energy matter...

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Earth Systems Kinetic energy - matter in motion has energy Heat flow - energy is transferred from one object to another as the result of a temperature difference First Law of thermodynamics - the amount of energy in an isolated system stays constant Second law of Thermodynamics - an energy transformation occurs and results in increased disorder Atmosphere: Thermosphere: Outermost and biggest layer, hot because of proximity to sun. Mesosphere: Second biggest layer, cold because it’s away from stratospheric ozone which traps heat and because it’s not close enough to the sun to be hot. 50-85km from the surface. Stratosphere: 13-50km above the surface, hot because ozone layer traps heat. Troposphere: Lowest level, has all of the weather, 10-13km above surface. Hydrosphere: All the water supply on the Earth, including solid, liquid, and gas forms. Biosphere: The area of Earth where life exists. Lithosphere (geosphere): Solid portion of the Earth, has several layers: Crust: Outermost layer, has oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium Mantle: Largest layer of lithosphere, beneath crust. Mix of solid/liquid metal elements Outer/Inner Core: Composed of metals, iron/nickel at high temperatures Water Supply: 97% of water on the Earth is salt water, leaving only 3% as fresh water of which slightly over two thirds is frozen in glaciers and icecaps Acidity - measured on the pH scale, pH of 4 has 1X10 -4 hydrogen ion concentration Turbidity - caused by suspended particles Dissolved oxygen - decreased by the breakdown of organic waste, the major source of dissolved oxygen in the ocean comes from photosynthesis by phytoplankton Hardness - measured by amount of Ca +2 and Mg +2 Salinity - amount of dissolved salts especially sodium chloride in a given volume of water Fast Facts: The greatest amount of water for domestic use in the US is used flushing the toilet The greatest amount of water in the world is used in agricultural processes. Dissolved oxygen goes down after a point source of pollution is added to a stream or lake. Earth Science Concepts and Soil: The Earth is considered a little over 5 billion years old. Precambrian era lasted until about 570 million years ago very little fossil evidence. Paleozoic era goes from approx 570 million to 225 million years ago. This era includes the carboniferous period when the great coal deposits were laid down Mesozoic era goes from approx.225 to 65 million years ago and includes the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods This is when the dinosaurs were present on this planet. We now live in the Cenozoic era which began 65 million years ago to today. High rates of human extinction occurred in this era. Man has been around maybe 1.6 million years. From the top, horizons: O (surface litter), A (topsoil), E (leaching zone), B (subsoil), C (weathered parent material), Bedrock Infiltration: Seeping of water through soil Leaching: Process by which infiltrated water picks up nutrients and carries them down Sand has the greatest permeability Clay has the least permeability
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