Lab1 Reading - ANT 301 Intro to Physical Anthropology...

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ANT 301 Intro to Physical Anthropology Summer 2010 Lab 1: SKELETAL ANATOMY In this reading you will become familiar with cranial and skeletal anatomy and standard anatomical terms used in physical anthropology. The information and terms pertaining to primate skeletal anatomy will be used in many of the future labs. Please refer to the www.eSkeletons.org website for additional practice in naming and identifying the different types of bones and teeth. SECTION 1: ANATOMICAL TERMS Physical anthropologists and anatomists use a specialized vocabulary to describe motions of the body, planes of reference, and directions with respect to an animal's body. Anatomical terminology is based on the human standard anatomical position . In standard anatomical position the individual stands with feet together pointing forward, looking forward, with no long bones crossed from the viewer's perspective. To prevent the crossing of the long bones of the lower arm, the palms of the hands must face forward, with the thumbs pointing away from the body. Remember that not all primates are orthograde (trunk held upright) like humans; many are pronograde (walking on four limbs, with the trunk horizontal). To use more inclusive terminology, we employ variations on anatomical terms that apply to both pronograde and orthograde posture. Directional Terms (Cranial and Skeletal) (figures 10 and 11) 1. Cranial (superior in humans): toward the head end of the body 2. Caudal (inferior in humans): opposite of cranial; toward the tail end of the body 3. Ventral (anterior for humans): toward the belly 4. Dorsal (posterior for humans): opposite of ventral; toward the back 5. Medial : toward the midline (middle) of the body 6. Lateral : opposite of medial; away from the midline of the body 7. Proximal : nearer to the axial skeleton, usually used for limb bones 8. Distal : opposite of proximal; farther from the axial skeleton Planes of Reference (figures 12 and 13) 1. Sagittal Plane: divides the body into symmetrical right and left halves 2. Coronal Plane: divides the body into anterior and posterior halves 3. Transverse Plane: a plane that slices through the body at any height but always passes perpendicular to the sagittal and frontal planes (also referred to as horizontal ) 1
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Directional Terms (Dental) (see Figure 14) 1. Mesial: towards the midline at the front of the mouth 2. Distal: opposite of mesial; towards the back of the each tooth row 3. Lingual: toward the tongue 4. Buccal: toward the cheek 5. Occlusal: the chewing surface of each tooth Motions of the Body Muscles acting directly, or via tendons, on bones generate movements of the body. 1. Flexion : bending movement that decreases the angle between body parts 2. Extension : opposite of flexion ; a straightening movement that increases the angle between body parts 3. Abduction : movement of a body part, usually an appendage, away from the midline sagittal plane 4. Adduction : opposite of abduction ; movement of a body part, usually an appendage toward
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Lab1 Reading - ANT 301 Intro to Physical Anthropology...

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