LecturesWeek3 - 7/26/2010 ANT 304 Changes of the...

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7/26/2010 – ANT 304 Changes of the Pleistocene: –Decline in large game hunting, as many of these animals became extinct –Warming of the climate –Human diets diversify –We see a shift from scattered, mobile groups to settled, permanent groups –Mesolithic graveyard: All but one body were found completely extended Buried with powdered ochre Older individuals found with racks of red deer antlers Males were buried with flint knives Females were buried with jewelry Some graves contained bodies that showed evidence of violent death (i.e. a bone point stuck in throat) –The nature of the human diet is of great import to prehistoric research –Information is gathered via chemical analysis –The ratio of carbon isotope 13C (C13 in corn) to 12C at Vedbaek indicates a greater reliance on marine foods –The mass spectrometer is a tool used to find these measurements: -20 to -30 range = terrestrial plant foods -10 to -18 range = marine foods Chapter 6 – The Origins of Agriculture
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Just a few terms to know: Archaic = 6,000 B.C. to 1000 B.C. Mobile sedentism = Lifestyle is a mixture between the hunter-gatherer ways and the sedentary ways Transhumance = humans may remain by a river for a certain time, and then later migrate with animals as the seasons change, etc. Grinding stones = evidence for the increased utilization of plants during this time, as these were tools used to prepare such foods to be eaten. At the end of the Pleistocene, some human groups began to farm more so than herd and cultivate: 7/27/2010 – ANT 304 Origins of Agriculture – Problems: –SW Asia’s earliest farming villages are located @ margin of natural habitat, but the same plants in other areas not domesticated –Human pops not large b4 agriculture, and no climactic crisis forced people, plants and animals near water –Some theories seem reasonable in one of primary centers of domestication, but not the other –Adequate explanation should deal with how it all began AS WELL AS why it happened so suddenly Origins – The Fertile Crescent: –Domestication did not ever take place in Mesopotamia –Wheat, barley, pigs, goats, sheep:
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SW Asia home to some of the earliest domesticated plants and animals & some of world’s first civilizations In late Paleolithic around 200,00 years ago, hunter-gatherers lived in small, seasonal camps throughout the Fertile Crescent Between 8000 & 9000, changes in size shape and structure of several cereals indicate they have been domesticated *Earliest = rye dated to 10,000 BC. *8 or 9 “founder plants” domesticated from 9000-7000 BC *First evidence for their domestication comes from same areas where wild ancestral stock is common The number and size of prehistoric communities expanded greatly during the Neolithic. *First towns appear and major dietary changes occur
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2010 for the course ANT 81350 taught by Professor Carrieveilleux during the Summer '10 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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LecturesWeek3 - 7/26/2010 ANT 304 Changes of the...

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